Author Contributions: Dr Kato had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Drs Mehari and Gladwin contributed equally. Drs Machado and Kato (senior authors) contributed equally.
Study concept and design: Gladwin, Machado, Kato.
Acquisition of data: Mehari, Gladwin, Machado, Kato.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Mehari, Gladwin, Tian, Machado, Kato.
Drafting of the manuscript: Mehari, Gladwin, Tian, Machado, Kato.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Mehari, Gladwin, Tian, Machado, Kato.
Statistical analysis: Mehari, Tian.
Obtained funding: Kato.
Administrative, technical or material support: Gladwin.
Study supervision: Machado, Kato.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: The authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Gladwin reported that grant money was paid to his institution by Bayer Corporation and INO Therapeutics and money was paid by the US government to his institution for patents in which he is the co-inventor and coauthor. No other author reported disclosures.
Funding/Support: This research was supported by grants 1ZIAHL006011, 1ZIAHL006015, and 1ZIAHL006012 from the Division of Intramural Research of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Dr Gladwin receives research support from the Institute for Transfusion Medicine and the Hemophilia Center of Western Pennsylvania and from National Institutes of Health grants R01HL098032, RO1HL096973, RC1DK085852, and PO1HL103455. Dr Machado receives research support from National Institutes of Health grant K23HL098454.
Role of the Sponsors: The funding organizations had no role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Additional Contributions: The following 9 collaborators are acknowledged for their contributions to this study: Shoaib Alam, MD, James G. Taylor VI, MD, Vandana Sachdev, MD, Caterina P. Minniti, MD, and Catherine Seamon, RN (acquisition of data and critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content), Dihua Xu, PhD (data analysis), all with the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Maryland; Michael J. Cuttica, MD (acquisition of data and critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content), Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois; Christopher F. Barnett, MD (acquisition of data and critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content), Division of Cardiology, University of California, San Francisco; and Patricia Adams-Graves, MD (acquisition of data and critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content). We thank additional National Institutes of Health personnel, including Mary K. Hall, CIP, for expert protocol management; and additional Protocol Coordinators James Nichols, RN, Wynona Coles, RT, and Lori Hunter, RN. None of these personnel received outside compensation for this study. This research could not have been possible without all the patients with sickle cell disease who participated.