Author Contributions: Dr Greysen had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Greysen, Chretien, Kind, Young, Gross.
Acquisition of data: Greysen, Young.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Greysen, Chretien, Kind, Young.
Drafting of the manuscript: Greysen, Chretien.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Greysen, Chretien, Kind, Young, Gross.
Statistical analysis: Greysen.
Administrative, technical or material support: Chretien, Young.
Study supervision: Gross.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: The authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Gross reported serving as a scientific advisory board member for Fair Health Inc and receiving funding as a collaborator on the Yale University Open Data Access project, which is facilitating objective analysis of Medtronic clinical data. No other author reported disclosures.
Funding/Support: The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the Department of Veterans Affairs, as sponsors of the Dr Greysen's fellowship program, helped to fund the research for this study.
Role of the Sponsor: The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the Department of Veterans Affairs had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Department of Veterans Affairs.
Additional Contributions: We recognize Humayun J. Chaudhry, DO, MS (president and CEO) and David Johnson, MA (vice president of assessment services) at the Federation of State Medical Boards for assisting in the study conceptualization and design, revision of survey instruments, collection and interpretation of data, and writing and revision of the manuscript. We also thank the Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars program and the Department of Veterans Affairs for support of this research and our key informants at state medical and osteopathic boards for invaluable insights into the structure and function of their licensing bodies. Dr Chaudhry and Mr Johnson were not financially compensated for their contributions.