Over the past 40 years, human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as an important pathogen. Upward of 100 types of HPV have been documented and broadly categorized into high-risk and low-risk subtypes on the basis of their association with high-grade dysplasia vs condylomata and mostly low-grade dysplasia, respectively. Infection with HPV, the most common sexually transmitted disease, begins with direct skin/mucosal contact and inoculation of immortalized basal lamina cells through the microabrasions that accompany sexual behaviors. As infected basal cells ascend the epidermal strata, HPV stimulates cell proliferation into condylomata or dysplasia, completes its life cycle, and sheds further virions. Although most people are able to clear the potential pathogen, others develop persistent infection, which if caused by a high-risk subtype, in particular HPV type 16 (HPV-16), may progress from low-grade dysplasia to a high-grade form and become malignant with local invasion across the basement membrane.
Register and get free email Table of Contents alerts, saved searches, PowerPoint downloads, CME quizzes, and more
Subscribe for full-text access to content from 1998 forward and a host of useful features
Activate your current subscription (AMA members and current subscribers)
Purchase Online Access to this article for 24 hours
Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.
Download citation file:
Web of Science® Times Cited: 2
Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.
More Listings atJAMACareerCenter.com >
and access these and other features:
Enter your username and email address. We'll send you a link to reset your password.
Enter your username and email address. We'll send instructions on how to reset your password to the email address we have on record.
Athens and Shibboleth are access management services that provide single sign-on to protected resources. They replace the multiple user names and passwords necessary to access subscription-based content with a single user name and password that can be entered once per session. It operates independently of a user's location or IP address. If your institution uses Athens or Shibboleth authentication, please contact your site administrator to receive your user name and password.