Author Contributions: Mr Roberts had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Schmidt, Anderson, Doyle, Dewey, Grunau, Davis, Tin, Moddemann, Ohlsson, Solimano, Roberts.
Acquisition of data: Schmidt, Anderson, Doyle, Grunau, Asztalos, Tin, Moddemann, Ohlsson, Barrington.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Schmidt, Dewey, Solimano, Roberts.
Drafting of the manuscript: Schmidt, Roberts.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Anderson, Doyle, Dewey, Grunau, Asztalos, Davis, Tin, Moddemann, Solimano, Ohlsson, Barrington.
Statistical analysis: Roberts.
Obtained funding: Schmidt, Dewey, Ohlsson, Roberts.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Schmidt, Anderson, Dewey, Davis, Moddemann.
Study supervision: Schmidt, Anderson, Grunau, Asztalos, Tin, Solimano.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Drs Schmidt, Doyle, and Barrington reported that they received travel and related expenses for attending scientific meetings from Chiesi Pharmaceuticals. Dr Schmidt reported receiving a speakers' honorarium from the Nemours Foundation. No other authors reported disclosures.
Funding/Support: This follow-up study was supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (MCT 13288).
Role of the Sponsors: Neither the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Chiesi Pharmaceuticals, nor any other manufacturer of caffeine citrate had a role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
The CAP Trial Investigators
The following investigators and research staff contributed to the 5-year follow-up of CAP trial participants. Study sites are listed according to the number of infants they enrolled. McMaster University Medical Center, Hamilton, Canada: Barbara Schmidt, Judy D’Ilario, Janice Cairnie, Joanne Dix, Beth Adams, Erin Warriner, Mee-Hai Marie Kim; Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia: Peter Anderson, Peter Davis, Lex Doyle, Brenda Argus, Kate Callanan, Noni Davis, Julianne Duff, Marion McDonald; Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, Canada: Elizabeth Asztalos, Denise Hohn, Maralyn Lacy; Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, Australia: Ross Haslam, Christopher Barnett, Louise Goodchild, Rosslyn Lontis; Mercy Hospital for Women, Melbourne, Australia: Simon Fraser, Julie Keng, Kerryn Saunders, Gillian Opie, Elaine Kelly, Heather Woods, Emma Marchant, Anne-Marie Turner, Noni Davis, Emma Magrath, Amanda Williamson; Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec City, Canada: Aida Bairam, Sylvie Bélanger, Annie Fraser; Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Canada: Brigitte Lemyre, Jane Frank; Children's & Women's Health Centre of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada: Alfonso Solimano, Anne Synnes, Ruth E. Grunau, Philippa Hubber-Richard, Marilyn Rogers, Margot Mackay, Julianne Petrie-Thomas, Arsalan Butt; Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Aleid van Wassenaer, Debbie Nuytemans, Bregje Houtzager, Loekie van Sonderen; Meir General Hospital, Kfar-Saba, Israel: Rivka Regev, Netter Itzchack, Shmuel Arnon, Adiba Chalaf; Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Canada: Arne Ohlsson, Karel O’Brien, Anne-Marie Hamilton, May Lee Chan; Royal University Hospital, Saskatoon, Canada: Koravangattu Sankaran, Sheila Morgan, Pat Proctor; Soroka University Medical Center, Beer Sheva, Israel: Agneta Golan, Esther Goldsch-Lerman; The Canberra Hospital, Canberra, Australia: Graham Reynolds, Barbara Dromgool, Sandra Meskell, Vanessa Parr, Catherine Maher, Margaret Broom, Zsuzsoka Kecskes, Cathy Ringland; Foothills Hospital and Alberta Children's Hospital, Calgary, Canada: Douglas McMillan, Debbie Schaab, Elizabeth Spellen, Reginald S. Sauve, Heather Christianson, Deborah Anseeuw-Deeks, Dianne Creighton, Jennifer Heath; St. Boniface, Winnipeg, Canada: Ruben Alvaro, Aaron Chiu, Ceceile Porter, Gloria Turner, Diane Moddemann, Naomi Granke, Karen Penner, Jane Bow; University Hospital Maastricht, Maastricht, the Netherlands: Antonius Mulder, Renske Wassenberg, Markus van der Hoeven; Kingston General Hospital, Kingston, Canada: Maxine Clarke, Judy Parfitt, Kevin Parker; Windsor Regional Hospital, Windsor, Canada: Chukwuma Nwaesei, Heather Ryan, Cory Saunders; Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich, Germany: Andreas Schulze, Inga Wermuth, Anne Hilgendorff, Andreas W. Flemmer; Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden: Eric Herlenius, Lena Legnevall, Hugo Lagercrantz; Victoria General Hospital, Victoria, Canada: Derek Matthew, Wendy Amos, Suresh Tulsiani, Cherrie Tan-Dy, Marilyn Turner, Constance Phelan; Kaplan Medical Center, Rehovot, Israel: Eric Shinwell, Michael Levine, Ada Juster-Reicher; Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal, Canada: May Khairy, Patricia Grier, Julie Vachon, Larissa Perepolkin, Keith J. Barrington; James Cook University Hospital, Middlesbrough, United Kingdom: Sunil Sinha, Win Tin, Susan Fritz; University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Canada: Herve Walti, Diane Royer; Royal Maternity Hospital Belfast, Northern Ireland: Henry Halliday, David Millar, Anne Berry, Clifford Mayes, Christopher McCusker, Olivia McLaughlin; Basel Children's Hospital, Basel, Switzerland: Hubert Fahnenstich, Bettina Tillmann, Peter Weber; Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom: Unni Wariyar, Nicholas Embleton, Ravi Swamy; University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland: Hans U. Bucher, Jean-Claude Fauchere, Vera Dietz; Northern Neonatal Initiatives, Middlesbrough, United Kingdom: Chidambara Harikumar, Win Tin, Susan Fritz.
Steering Committee for 5-Year Follow-up: Barbara Schmidt (Chair), Peter J. Anderson, Elizabeth V. Asztalos, Keith J. Barrington, Peter G. Davis, Deborah Dewey, Lex W. Doyle, Ruth E. Grunau, Diane Moddemann, Arne Ohlsson, Robin S. Roberts, Alfonso Solimano, Win Tin.
External Data and Safety Monitoring Committee: Michael Gent (Chair), William Fraser, Edmund Hey, Max Perlman, Kevin Thorpe.
Consultant Pharmacist: Shari Gray.
Coordinating and Methods Center in Hamilton, Canada: Robin S. Roberts, Carole Chambers, Lorrie Costantini, Wendy Yacura, Erin McGean, Lori Scapinello.