Author Contributions: Drs Keller and Blankenberg had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Keller, Lackner, Münzel, Blankenberg.
Acquisition of data: Keller, Zeller, Tzikas, Lillpopp, Sinning, Genth-Zotz, Bickel, Peetz, Lackner, Baldus.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Keller, Ojeda, Wild, Genth-Zotz, Warnholtz, Giannitsis, Möckel, Bickel, Peetz, Lackner, Baldus, Münzel, Blankenberg.
Drafting of the manuscript: Keller, Blankenberg.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Zeller, Ojeda, Tzikas, Lillpopp, Sinning, Wild, Genth-Zotz, Warnholtz, Giannitsis, Möckel, Bickel, Peetz, Lackner, Baldus, Münzel.
Statistical analysis: Keller, Ojeda.
Obtained funding: Lackner, Blankenberg.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Keller, Zeller, Tzikas, Peetz, Lackner, Baldus, Münzel, Blankenberg.
Study supervision: Lackner, Münzel, Blankenberg.
Drs Münzel and Blankenberg contributed equally to this article.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Drs Keller, Zeller, Wild, and Möckel reported that their institutions received grant support from Brahms AG and Abbott Diagnostics. Dr Warnholtz reported serving as a consultant to St Jude Medical and receiving payment for lectures provided by Actavis, St Jude Medical, Terumo, AstraZeneca, Novartis, and sanofi-aventis. Dr Giannitsis reported receiving payment for lectures from Roche Diagnostics. Dr Möckel reported serving on the board of Brahms GmbH and reported that his institution received grants from Siemens. Dr Peetz reported that his institution received grant support from Abbott Diagnostics; reported serving as a consultant to Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics and Roche Diagnostics; and reported payment for lectures from Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics. Dr Blankenberg reported receiving lecture fees from and consulting for Brahms Thermo Fisher and receiving lecture fees from Abbott Diagnostics and Siemens.
Funding/Support: Support was provided by research programs “Wissen schafft Zukunft” and “Schwerpunkt Vaskuläre Prävention” of the Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz. In addition, funding was provided by unrestricted grants of the Brahms AG, Germany and Abbott Diagnostics.
Role of the Sponsor: The sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study, in the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data, or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Additional Contributions: We thank the doctoral students Dudu Kutlu, MD, Christian Bredel, MD, Gerhard Pioro, MD, Ewa Czyz, MD, Eliana Pallazetti, MD, Irene Schönhagen, and Anne Schauer (all from Department of Medicine II, University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz) for help with data acquisition. Additionally, we thank the employed staff of the biomarker laboratory (Department of Medicine II, University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz) for their help in biomarker determination.