Author Contributions: Dr Hotchkiss had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Boomer, Walton, Green, Hotchkiss.
Acquisition of data: Boomer, To, Chang, Takasu, Osborne, Walton, Bricker, Jarman, Kreisel, Krupnick, Srivastava, Green, Hotchkiss.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Boomer, Chang, Walton, Swanson, Green, Hotchkiss.
Drafting of the manuscript: Jarman, Green, Hotchkiss.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Boomer, To, Chang, Takasu, Osborne, Walton, Bricker, Kreisel, Krupnick, Srivastava, Swanson, Green, Hotchkiss.
Statistical analysis: Boomer, Osborne, Walton, Green, Hotchkiss.
Obtained funding: Hotchkiss.
Administrative, technical, or material support: To, Chang, Takasu, Osborne, Bricker, Jarman, Kreisel, Krupnick, Srivastava, Green, Hotchkiss.
Study supervision: Boomer, Swanson, Green, Hotchkiss.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Hotchkiss reports receiving grant support from Pfizer, Bristol-Meyers Squibb, and Aurigene. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This research was supported by National Institutes of Health grants GM44118, GM55194, and HL104985.
Role of the Sponsor: The National Institutes of Health had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Additional Contributions: We acknowledge the nurses and staff of the surgical and medical intensive care units at Barnes Jewish Hospital and St John's Hospital and of the staff at Mid-America Transplant, St Louis, Missouri.