Author Contributions: Dr Das and Mr McDonald had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Carlo, Fanaroff, Davis, Higgins.
Acquisition of data: Carlo, Fanaroff, Vohr, Stoll, Ehrenkranz, Bell, Walsh, Laptook, Shankaran, Poindexter, Hale, Newman, Schibler, Kennedy, Sánchez, van Meurs, Goldberg, Watterberg, Faix, Frantz.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Carlo, McDonald, Wallace, Das, Higgins.
Drafting of the manuscript: Carlo, McDonald.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Carlo, McDonald, Fanaroff, Vohr, Stoll, Ehrenkranz, Andrews, Wallace, Das, Bell, Walsh, Laptook, Shankaran, Poindexter, Hale, Newman, Davis, Schibler, Kennedy, Sánchez, van Meurs, Goldberg, Watterberg, Faix, Frantz, Higgins.
Statistical analysis: McDonald, Wallace, Das.
Obtained funding: Carlo, Fanaroff, Stoll, Ehrenkranz, Das, Bell, Walsh, Laptook, Shankaran, Poindexter, Schibler, Kennedy, Sánchez, van Meurs, Goldberg, Faix, Frantz.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Carlo, Andrews, Wallace, Shankaran, Newman, Schibler, Sánchez, Goldberg, Higgins.
Study supervision: Carlo, Fanaroff, Stoll, Ehrenkranz, Poindexter, Schibler, Kennedy, Sánchez, Faix, Higgins.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Carlo reported that he is a board member of Mednax. Dr Sánchez reported that he received study funding from F. Hoffman-LaRoche Ltd and Astellas for his work on the Collaborative Antiviral Study Group. Dr van Meurs reported that she received consulting fees, honorarium, and equipment support from Ikaria; travel, accommodations, and meeting expenses paid for by Actelion and Ikaria; and payment from legal firms for expert testimony for various lawsuits. Dr Faix reported that he serves on a data and safety monitoring board and receives funding from Ikaria Biosynexus. No other authors reported disclosures.
Funding/Support: The National Institutes of Health and the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) provided grant support for the Neonatal Research Network's Generic Database and Follow-up Studies.
Role of the Sponsor: The protocol was investigator-initiated but the NICHD's staff participated in the final study design and conduct of the study; interpretation of the data; and review and approval of the manuscript through the cooperative grant mechanism. Data collected at participating sites of the NICHD's Neonatal Research Network (NRN) were transmitted to RTI International, the data coordinating center for the network, which stored, managed, and analyzed the data for this study.
Investigators and Study Sites: Alan H. Jobe, MD, PhD, University of Cincinnati (NRN steering committee chair); University of Chicago, Pritzker School of Medicine (Michael S. Caplan, MD); Alpert Medical School of Brown University and Women & Infants Hospital of Rhode Island (William Oh, MD, Bonnie Stephens, MD, Robert Burke, MD, Barbara Alksninis, PNP, Melinda Caskey, MD, Katharine Johnson, MD, Angelita M. Hensman, RN, BSN, Suzy Ventura, Victoria E. Watson, MS, CAS, Theresa M. Leach, MEd, CAES; grant U10 HD27904); Brigham and Women's Hospital, Children's Hospital Boston, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and Harvard Medical School (Ann R. Stark, MD, Kerri Fournier, RN, Stacy Dow, RN, Kimberly Gronsman Lee, MD, Colleen Driscoll; grants U10 HD34167, M01 RR2635, and M01 RR2172); Case Western Reserve University, Rainbow Babies & Children's Hospital (Deanne Wilson-Costello, MD, Bonnie S. Siner, RN; grants U10 HD21364 and M01 RR80); Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University Hospital, and Good Samaritan Hospital (Edward F. Donovan, MD, Kate Bridges, MD, Barbara Alexander, RN, Jean Steichen, MD, Kimberly A. Yolton, PhD, Cathy Grisby, BSN, CCRC, Holly L. Mincey, RN, BSN, Jody Hessling, RN, Marcia Worley Mersmann, RN, CCRC, Teresa L. Gratton, PA; grants U10 HD27853 and M01 RR8084); Duke University School of Medicine, University Hospital, Alamance Regional Medical Center, and Durham Regional Hospital (C. Michael Cotten, MD, MHS, Ricki Goldstein, MD, Kathy J. Auten, MSHS, Kimberley A. Fisher, PhD, FNP-BC, IBCLC, Katherine A. Foy, RN, Sandra Grimes, RN, BSN, Melody Lohmeyer, RN; grants U10 HD40492 and M01 RR30); Emory University, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Grady Memorial Hospital, and Emory University Hospital Midtown (David P. Carlton, MD, Lucky Jain, MD, Ira Adams-Chapman, MD; grants U10 HD27851, M01 RR39, and UL1 RR25008); Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (Linda L. Wright, MD, Stephanie Wilson Archer, MA, Elizabeth M. McClure, MEd); Floating Hospital for Children at Tufts Medical Center (Elisabeth C. McGowan, MD, Brenda L. MacKinnon, RNC, Anne Furey, MPH, Ellen Nylen, RN, BSN; grants U10 HD53119 and M01 RR54); Indiana University, University Hospital, Methodist Hospital, Riley Hospital for Children, and Wishard Health Services (James A. Lemons, MD, Anna M. Dusick, MD, Diana D. Appel, RN, BSN, Dianne E. Herron, RN, Lucy C. Miller, RN, BSN, CCRC, Leslie Dawn Wilson, BSN, CCRC, Leslie Richard, RN; grants U10 HD27856, M01 RR750, and UL1 RR25761); RTI International (W. Kenneth Poole, PhD, Jeanette O’Donnell Auman, BS, Margaret Cunningham, BS, CCRP, Betty K. Hastings, Carolyn M. Petrie Huitema, MS, CCRP, Elizabeth M. McClure, MEd, Jamie E. Newman, PhD, MPH, James W. Pickett II, BS, Kristin M. Zaterka-Baxter, RN, BSN, CCRP; grant U10 HD36790); Stanford University, California Pacific Medical Center, Dominican Hospital, El Camino Hospital, and Lucile Packard Children's Hospital (David K. Stevenson, MD, Susan R. Hintz, MD, MS, Epi, Marian M. Adams, MD, Barry E. Fleisher, MD, Jean G. Kohn, MD, MPH, Robert D. Stebbins, MD, Hali Weiss, MD, Joan M. Baran, PhD, Barbara Bentley, PhD, Lori Bond, PhD, Ginger K. Brudos, PhD, Elizabeth Bruno, PhD, Maria Elena DeAnda, PhD, Julie Lee-Ancajas, PhD, Renee P. Pyle, PhD, Nicholas St John, PhD, M. Bethany Ball, BS, CCRC, Anne M. DeBattista, RN, PRP, Melinda S. Proud, RCP; grants U10 HD27880, M01 RR70, and UL1 RR25744); University of Alabama at Birmingham Health System and Children's Hospital of Alabama (Namasivayam Ambalavanan, MD, Monica V. Collins, RN, BSN, MaEd, Shirley S. Cosby, RN, BSN, Myriam Peralta-Carcelen, MD, Vivien Phillips, RN, BSN, Fred J. Biasini, PhD, Reed Dimmitt, MD, David Randolph, MD, PhD; grants U10 HD34216 and M01 RR32); University of California–San Diego Medical Center and Sharp Mary Birch Hospital for Women and Newborns (Neil N. Finer, MD, Maynard R. Rasmussen, MD, Paul R. Wozniak, MD, Yvonne E. Vaucher, MD, MPH, Kathy Arnell, RNC, Renee Bridge, RN, Clarence Demetrio, RN, Martha G. Fuller, RN, MSN, Chris Henderson, RCP, CRTT, Wade Rich, BSHS, RRT; grant U10 HD40461); University of Iowa Children's Hospital (John A. Widness, MD, Michael J. Acarregui, MD, Karen J. Johnson, RN, BSN, Diane L. Eastman, RN, CPNP, MA; grants U10 HD53109, M01 RR59, and UL1 RR24979); University of Miami, Holtz Children's Hospital (Shahnaz Duara, MD, Charles R. Bauer, MD, Ruth Everett-Thomas, RN, MSN, Amy Mur Worth, RN, MS, Kasey Hamlin-Smith, PhD, Michelle Berkovits, PhD, Silvia M. Frade Eguras, BA, Mary Allison, RN; grant U10 HD21397); University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center (Lu-Ann Papile, MD, Janell Fuller, MD, Jean Lowe, PhD, Conra Backstrom Lacy, RN, Rebecca Montman, BSN; grants U10 HD53089 and M01 RR997); University of Rochester Medical Center, Golisano Children's Hospital (Dale L. Phelps, MD, Gary Myers, MD, Diane Hust, RN, PNP, Linda J. Reubens, RN, CCRC, Erica Burnell, RN, Rosemary L. Jensen, Mary Rowan, RN, Kelley Yost, PhD, Lauren Zwetsch, RN, MS, PNP, Julie Babish Johnson, MSW, Emily Kushner, MA, Cassandra A. Horihan, MS, Joan Merzbach, LMSW (grants U10 HD40521, M01 RR44, and UL1 RR24160); University of Tennessee Health Science Center (Sheldon B. Korones, MD, Henrietta S. Bada, MD, Marilyn G. Williams, LCSW, Kimberly Yolton, PhD; grant U10 HD21415); University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Parkland Health & Hospital System, and Children's Medical Center Dallas (Charles R. Rosenfeld, MD, Walid A. Salhab, MD, Jon E. Tyson, MD, MPH, Roy J. Heyne, MD, Luc P. Brion, MD, Alicia Guzman, Jackie F. Hickman, RN, Nancy A. Miller, RN, Diana M. Vasil, RNC-NIC, Lizette E. Torres, RN, Janet S. Morgan, RN, Cathy Twell Boatman, MS, CIMI; grants U10 HD40689 and M01 RR633); University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston Medical School, Children's Memorial Hermann Hospital, and Lyndon Baines Johnson General Hospital/Harris County Hospital District (Jon E. Tyson, MD, MPH, Esther G. Akpa, RN, BSN, Magda Cedillo, Patricia Ann Orekoya, RN, BSN, Susan E. Dieterich, PhD, Patricia W. Evans, MD, Claudia I. Franco, RNC, MSN, Charles E. Green, PhD, Beverly Foley Harris, RN, BSN, Margarita Jiminez, MD, MPH, Terri L. Major-Kincade, MD, MPH, Anna E. Lis, RN, BSN, Sarah C. Martin, RN, BSN, Georgia E. McDavid, RN, Brenda H. Morris, MD, M. Layne Poundstone, RN, BSN, Stacey Reddoch, BA, Saba Khan Siddiki, MD, Maegan C. Simmons, RN, Patti L. Pierce Tate, RCP, Laura L. Whitely, MD, Sharon L. Wright, MT [ASCP]; grant U10 HD21373); University of Utah University Hospital, LDS Hospital, and Primary Children's Medical Center (Bradley A. Yoder, MD, Karen A. Osborne, RN, BSN, CCRC, Jennifer J. Jensen, RN, BSN, Cynthia Spencer, RNC, Kimberlee Weaver-Lewis, RN, BSN, Jill Burnett, RNC, Shawna Baker, RN; grants U10 HD53124, M01 RR64, and UL1 RR25764); Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, Brenner Children's Hospital, and Forsyth Medical Center (T. Michael O’Shea, MD, MPH, Robert Dillard, MD, Nancy J. Peters, RN, CCRP, Barbara Jackson, RN, BSN; grants U10 HD40498 and M01 RR7122); Wayne State University, Hutzel Women's Hospital, and Children's Hospital of Michigan (Athina Pappas, MD, Yvette R. Johnson, MD, MPH, Virginia Delaney-Black, MD, MPH, Rebecca Bara, RN, BSN, Geraldine Muran, RN, BSN, Deborah Kennedy, RN, BSN, Laura A. Goldston, MA; grant U10 HD21385); Yale University, Yale-New Haven Children's Hospital, and Bridgeport Hospital (Harris Jacobs, MD, Linda C. Mayes, MD, Patricia Cervone, RN, Patricia Gettner, RN, Monica Konstantino, RN, BSN, JoAnn Poulsen, RN, Elaine Romano, MSN, Janet Taft, RN, BSN, Joanne Williams, RN, BSN, Nancy L. Close, PhD, Walter S. Gilliam, PhD, Christine G. Butler, MD, Sheila Greisman, RN; grants U10 HD27871, M01 RR125, M01 RR6022, and UL1 RR24139).
Online-Only Material: The Author Video Interview is available here.
Additional Contributions: We are indebted to our medical and nursing colleagues and the infants and their parents who agreed to take part in this study.