Author Contributions: Dr Park had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Tribouilloy, Miró, Murdoch, Moreillon, Utili, Wang.
Acquisition of data: Tribouilloy, Cortes, Casillo, Delahaye, Durante-Mangoni, Edathodu, Falces, Logar, Miró, Naber, Tripodi, Murdoch.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Kiefer, Park, Chu, Durante-Mangoni, Falces, Miró, Murdoch, Wang.
Drafting of the manuscript: Kiefer, Park, Durante-Mangoni, Falces, Wang.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Kiefer, Park, Tribouilloy, Cortes, Casillo, Chu, Delahaye, Durante-Mangoni, Edathodu, Falces, Logar, Miró, Naber, Tripodi, Murdoch, Moreillon, Utili, Wang.
Statistical analysis: Kiefer, Park, Miró.
Obtained funding: Chu.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Tribouilloy, Chu, Murdoch.
Study supervision: Tribouilloy, Falces, Miró, Tripodi, Utili.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Chu reported receiving a grant from the American Heart Association (0675027N). Dr Delahaye reported receiving grants from Novartis and the Fédération française de cardiologie. Dr Utili reported serving on the board of Novartis; receiving grants or grants pending from Wyeth; receiving payment for lectures, including service of speakers bureaus, from Novartis; receiving payment for manuscript preparation from Pfizer; and receiving travel/accommodations/meeting expenses from Pfizer, Wyeth, and Novartis. Dr Wang reported receiving grants or grants pending from Edwards Lifesciences, Abbott Vascular, and Gilead Sciences; receiving payment for lectures, including service on speakers bureaus, from American Physician Inc; receiving payment for development of educational presentations from the American Board of Internal Medicine and the American College of Cardiology Foundation; and serving as a defense reviewer (no expert testimony) for a legal case related to endocarditis.
Funding/Support: This work was supported in part by National Institutes of Health grant 2 T32 GM008600 to Dr Kiefer. Dr Miró was a recipient of an INT10/219 Intensification Research Grant (I3SNS & PRICS programs) from the Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain, and the Departament de Salut de la Generalitat de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain. Hospital Clinic of Barcelona (Spain) data were supported in part by Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, and the Spanish Network for the Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI RD06/0008), Madrid, Spain. No compensation for participation in the International Collaboration on Endocarditis–Prospective Cohort Study was provided to the investigators for their contributions.
Role of the Sponsor: The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
International Collaboration on Endocarditis-Prospective Cohort Study (ICE-PCS) Investigators and Sites:Argentina: Hospital Italiano (Liliana Clara, MD, Marisa Sanchez, MD); Instituto Cardiovascular (Francisco Nacinovich, MD, Pablo Fernandez Oses, MD, Ricardo Ronderos, MD, Adriana Sucari, MD, Jorge Thierer, MD); Hospital Universitario de la Fundaciòn Favaloro (José Casabé, MD, PhD, Claudia Cortes, MD); Sanatorio de la Trinidad Mitre (Javier Altclas, MD, Silvia Kogan, MD). Australia: Alfred Hospital (Denis Spelman, MD); Barwon Health (Eugene Athan, MD, Owen Harris, MBBS); Canberra Hospital (Karina Kennedy, MBBS, Ren Tan, MBBS); Flinders Medical Centre (David Gordon, MBBS, PhD, Lito Papanicolas, MBBS); Royal Melbourne Hospital (Damon Eisen, MBBS, MD, Leeanne Grigg, MBBS, Alan Street, MBBS); Hons Southern Health (Tony Korman, MD, Despina Kotsanas, BSc); St George Hospital (Robyn Dever, MD, Phillip Jones, MD, Pam Konecny, MD, Richard Lawrence, MD, David Rees, MD, Suzanne Ryan, MHSc); St Vincent's (Michael P. Feneley, MD, John Harkness, MD, Phillip Jones, MD, Suzanne Ryan, MHSc); The University of New South Wales (Phillip Jones, MD, Jeffrey Post, MD, Porl Reinbott, Suzanne Ryan, MHSc). Austria: Sutherland (Phillip Jones, MD, Suzanne Ryan, MHSc); Vienna General Hospital (Rainer Gattringer, MD, Franz Wiesbauer, MD). Brazil: Ana Neri Hospital (Adriana Ribas Andrade, Ana Cláudia Passos de Brito, Armenio Costa Guimarães, MD); Heart Institute Incor University of São Paulo Medical School (Max Grinberg, MD, PhD, Alfredo José Mansur, MD, PhD, Rinaldo Focaccia Siciliano, MD, Tania Mara Varejao Strabelli, MD, Marcelo Luiz Campos Vieira, MD); Hospital 9 de Julho (Regina Aparecida de Medeiros Tranchesi, MD, Marcelo Goulart Paiva, MD); Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho/UFRJ (Claudio Querido Fortes, MD); Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia (Auristela de Oliveira Ramos, MD); Instituto Nacional de Cardiologi (Giovanna Ferraiuoli, MD, Wilma Golebiovski, MD, Cristiane Lamas, MD, PhD, Marisa Santos, MD, PhD, Clara Weksler, MD). Canada: University of Manitoba (James A. Karlowsky, MD, Yoav Keynan, MD, Andrew M. Morris, MD, Ethan Rubinstein, MD, LLB). Chile: Universidad Católica de Chile (Sandra Braun Jones, MD, Patricia Garcia, MD (Hospital Clínico Pont); Hospital Clinico Universidad de Chile (M. Cereceda, MD, Alberto Fica, Rodrigo Montagna Mella, MD). Croatia: University Hospital for Infectious Diseases (Bruno Barsic, MD, PhD, Suzana Bukovski, MD, PhD, Vladimir Krajinovic, MD, Ana Pangercic, MD, Igor Rudez, MD, Josip Vincelj, MD, PhD). Czech Republic: Centre for Cardiovascular Surgery and Transplantation (Tomas Freiberger, MD, PhD, Jiri Pol, MD, Barbora Zaloudikova, MSc). Egypt: Cairo University Medical School (Zainab Ashour, MD, Amani El Kholy, MD, Marwa Mishaal, MD, Hussien Rizk, MD). France: CHU Nancy-Brabois (Neijla Aissa, MD, Corentine Alauzet, MD, Francois Alla, MD, PhD, Catherine Campagnac, RN, Thanh Doco-Lecompte, MD, Christine Selton-Suty, MD); Faculté de Médecine de Marseille CHU, Nancy-Brabois (Jean-Paul Casalta, MD, Pierre-Edouard Fournier, MD, Gilbert Habib, MD, Didier Raoult, MD, PhD, Franck Thuny, MD); Hospital Louis Pradel (Francois Delahaye, MD, PhD, Armelle Delahaye, Francois Vandenesch, MD); Pontchaillou University (Erwan Donal, MD, Pierre Yves Donnio, PhD, Christian Michelet, MD, PhD, Matthieu Revest, MD, Pierre Tattevin, MD, PhD, Jérémie Violette, MD); South Hospital Amiens (Florent Chevalier, MD, Antoine Jeu, MD, Dan Rusinaru, MD, Claire Sorel, MD, Christophe Tribouilloy, MD, PhD); University Medical Center of Besançon (Yvette Bernard, MD, Catherine Chirouze, MD, Bruno Hoen, MD, PhD, Joel Leroy, MD, Patrick Plesiat, MD). Germany: Universitaetskliniken Bergmannsheil Bochum (Christoph Naber, MD, PhD, Carl Neuerburg); University Essen (Bahram Mazaheri, PhD, Christoph Naber, MD, PhD, Carl Neuerburg). Greece: Attikon University General Hospital (Sofia Athanasia, MD, Efthymia Giannitsioti, MD); Evangelismos General Hospital of Athens (Elena Mylona, MD, Olga Paniara, MD, PhD, Konstantinos Papanicolaou, MD, John Pyros, MD, Athanasios Skoutelis, MD, PhD). India: All India Institute of Medical Sciences (Gautam Sharma, MD); Medical College Calicut (Johnson Francis, MD, DM, Lathi Nair, MD, DM, Vinod Thomas, MD, DM, Krishnan Venugopal, MD, DM). Ireland: Mater Hospitals (Margaret Hannan, MB, BCh, BAO, MSc, John Hurley, MB, BCh). Israel: Hadassah-Hebrew University (Dan Gilon, MD, Sarah Israel, MD, Maya Korem, MD, Jacob Strahilevitz, MD); Tel Aviv University School of Medicine (Ethan Rubinstein, MD, LLB, Jacob Strahilevitz, MD). Italy: Università di Napoli (Roberta Casillo, MD, PhD, Susanna Cuccurullo, MSc, Giovanni Dialetto, MD, Emanuele Durante-Mangoni, MD, PhD, Mattucci Irene, MD, Enrico Ragone, MD, PhD, Marie Françoise Tripodi, MD, Riccardo Utili, MD, PhD); Maria Vittoria Hospital (Enrico Cecchi, MD, Francesco De Rosa, MD, Davide Forno, MD, Massimo Imazio, MD, Rita Trinchero, MD); Ospedale di Circolo Varese (Alessandro Tebini, MD, Paolo Grossi, MD, PhD, Mariangela Lattanzio, MD, Antonio Toniolo, MD); Ospedali Riuniti di Bergamo (Antonio Goglio, MD, Annibale Raglio, MD, DTM&H, Veronica Ravasio, MD, Marco Rizzi, MD, Fredy Suter, MD); Spedali Civili–Università di Brescia (Giampiero Carosi, MD, Silvia Magri, MD, Liana Signorini, MD). Lebanon: American University of Beirut Medical Center (Tania Baban, MD, Zeina Kanafani, MD, MS, Souha S. Kanj, MD, Mohamad Yasmine, MD). Malaysia: University of Malaya Medical Center (Imran Abidin, MD); National Heart Institute (Syahidah Syed Tamin, MD). Mexico: Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez (Eduardo Rivera Martínez, MD, Gabriel Israel Soto Nieto, MD). The Netherlands: University of Amsterdam (Jan T.M. van der Meer, MD, PhD). New Zealand: University of Otago (Stephen Chambers, MD, MSc); Middlemore Hospital (David Holland, MB, ChB, PhD); Diagnostic Medlab (Arthur Morris, MD); Wellington Hospital (Nigel Raymond, MB, ChB); North Shore Hospital (Kerry Read, MB, ChB); University of Otago (David R. Murdoch, MD, MSc, DTM&H). Romania: Victor Babes University of Medicine and Pharmacy (Stefan Dragulescu, MD, PhD, Adina Ionac, MD, PhD, Cristian Mornos, MD). Russia: Learning-Scientific Centre of Medical Centre of Russian Presidential Affairs Government Medical Centre of Russia (O.M. Butkevich, PhD); Russian Medical State University (Natalia Chipigina, PhD, Ozerecky Kirill, MD, Kulichenko Vadim, Tatiana Vinogradova, MD, PhD). Saudi Arabia: King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center (Jameela Edathodu, MBBS, Magid Halim, MBBS). Singapore: National Heart Centre (Luh-Nah Lum, BSN, Ru-San Tan, MBBS). Slovenia: Medical Center Ljublijana (Tatjana Lejko-Zupanc, MD, PhD, Mateja Logar, MD, PhD, Manica Mueller-Premru, MD, PhD). South Africa: University of Cape Town and Groote Schuur Hospital (Patrick Commerford, MD, Anita Commerford, MD, Eduan Deetlefs, MD, Cass Hansa, MD, Mpiko Ntsekhe, MD). Spain: Hospital Clinic–IDIBAPS, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain (Manuel Almela, MD, Yolanda Armero, MD, Manuel Azqueta, MD, Ximena Castañeda, MD, Carlos Cervera, MD, Ana del Rio, MD, PhD, Carlos Falces, MD, Cristina Garcia-de-la-Maria, PhD, Guillermina Fita, MD, Jose M. Gatell, MD, PhD, Francesc Marco, MD, PhD, Carlos A. Mestres, MD, PhD, José M. Miró, MD, PhD, Asuncion Moreno, MD, PhD, Salvador Ninot, MD, Carlos Paré, MD, PhD, Joan Pericas, MD, Jose Ramirez, MD, PhD, Irene Rovira, MD, Marta Sitges, MD); Hospitál de Sabadell (Ignasi Anguera, MD, PhD, Bernat Font, MD, Joan Raimon Guma, MD); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón (Javier Bermejo, Emilio Bouza, MD, PhD, Miguel Angel Garcia Fernández, MD, Victor Gonzalez-Ramallo, MD, Mercedes Marín, MD, Patricia Muñoz, MD, PhD, Miguel Pedromingo, MD, Jorge Roda, Marta Rodríguez-Créixems, MD, PhD, Jorge Solis, MD); Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron (Benito Almirante, MD, Nuria Fernandez-Hidalgo, MD, Pilar Tornos, MD); Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío (Arístides de Alarcón, Ricardo Parra). Sweden: Sahlgrenska Universitetssjukhuset/Östra (Eric Alestig, MD, Magnus Johansson, MD, PhD, Lars Olaison, MD, PhD, Ulrika Snygg-Martin, MD). Thailand: Khon Kaen University (Orathai Pachirat, MD, Pimchitra Pachirat, MD, Burabha Pussadhamma, MD, Vichai Senthong, MD). United Kingdom: Queen Elizabeth Hospital (Anna Casey, MBBS, Tom Elliott, PhD, DSc, Peter Lambert, BSc, PhD, DSc, Richard Watkin, MBBS); St Thomas' Hospital (Christina Eyton, John L. Klein, MD). United States: Ann Arbor VA Medical Center (Suzanne Bradley, MD, Carol Kauffman, MD); Dallas VA Medical Center (Roger Bedimo, MD, MS); Duke University Medical Center (Vivian H. Chu, MD, MHS, G. Ralph Corey, MD, Anna Lisa Crowley, MD, MHS, Pamela Douglas, MD, Laura Drew, RN, BSN, Vance G. Fowler, MD, MHS, Thomas Holland, MD, Tahaniyat Lalani, MBBS, MHS, Daniel Mudrick, MD, Zainab Samad, MD, MHS, Daniel Sexton, MD, Martin Stryjewski, MD, MHS, Andrew Wang, MD, Christopher W. Woods, MD, MPH); Emory University (Stamatios Lerakis, MD); Medical University of South Carolina (Robert Cantey, MD, Lisa Steed, PhD, Dannah Wray, MD, MHS); New York University Medical Center (Stuart A. Dickerman, MD); Summa Health System (Hector Bonilla, MD, Joseph DiPersio, MD, PhD, Sara-Jane Salstrom, RN); University of Alabama at Birmingham (John Baddley, MD, Mukesh Patel, MD); University of Texas–Southwestern Medical Center (Gail Peterson, MD, Amy Stancoven, MD); Wayne State University (Luis Afonso, MD, Theresa Kulman, RN, Donald Levine, MD, Michael Rybak, PharmD, MPH); Quintiles (Christopher H. Cabell, MD, MHS). ICE Coordinating Center: Khaula Baloch, MPH, Vivian H. Chu, MD, MHS, G. Ralph Corey, MD, Christy C. Dixon, Vance G. Fowler Jr, MD, MHS, Tina Harding, RN, BSN, Marian Jones-Richmond, Paul Pappas, MS, Lawrence P. Park, PhD, Thomas Redick, MPH, Judy Stafford, MS. ICE Publications Committee: Kevin Anstrom, PhD, Eugene Athan, MD, Arnold S. Bayer, MD, Christopher H. Cabell, MD, MHS, Vivian H. Chu, MD, MHS, G. Ralph Corey, MD, Vance G. Fowler Jr, MD, MHS, Bruno Hoen, MD, PhD, A. W. Karchmer, MD, José M. Miró, MD, PhD, David R. Murdoch, MD, MSc, DTM&H, Daniel J. Sexton, MD, Andrew Wang, MD. ICE Steering Committee: Arnold S. Bayer, MD, Christopher H. Cabell, MD, MHS, Vivian Chu, MD, MHS, G. Ralph Corey, MD, David T. Durack, MD, DPhil, Susannah Eykyn, MD, Vance G. Fowler Jr, MD, MHS, Bruno Hoen, MD, PhD, José M. Miró, MD, PhD, Phillipe Moreillon, MD, PhD, Lars Olaison, MD, PhD, Didier Raoult, MD, PhD, Ethan Rubinstein, MD, LLB, Daniel J. Sexton, MD.
Online-Only Material: The Author Video Interview is available here.
This article was corrected for errors on December 12, 2011.