Author Contributions: Dr Shah had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Shah, Cowper, Douglas, Peterson.
Acquisition of data: Shah, Cowper, Jensen, Peterson.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Shah, Cowper, O’Brien, Patel, Douglas, Peterson.
Drafting of the manuscript: Shah, Patel.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Shah, Cowper, O’Brien, Jensen, Patel, Douglas, Peterson.
Statistical analysis: Shah, Cowper, O’Brien, Douglas, Peterson.
Obtained funding: Douglas, Peterson.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Jensen, Douglas.
Study supervision: Shah, Douglas, Peterson.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Shah reported receiving grants from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and being a consultant to Castlight. Mr Jensen is employed by United Healthcare. Dr Patel reported being a consultant for Bayer Healthcare, Genzyme, Ortho-McNeil, and Janssen; and receiving grants from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and Johnson & Johnson. Dr Peterson reported receiving research grants from Eli Lilly and Johnson & Johnson. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This work was funded by United Healthcare.
Role of the Sponsor: United Healthcare had no role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Disclaimer: Dr Peterson, a contributing editor for JAMA, was not involved in the editorial review of or decision to publish this article.
Online-Only Material: The Author Video Interview is available here.