Author Contributions: Drs Powers and Clarke had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Powers, Clarke, Grubb, Videen, Adams, Derdeyn.
Acquisition of data: Powers, Clarke, Grubb, Videen, Adams, Derdeyn.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Powers, Clarke, Grubb, Videen, Adams, Derdeyn.
Drafting of the manuscript: Powers, Clarke, Grubb, Videen.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Clarke, Grubb, Adams, Derdeyn.
Statistical analysis: Clarke.
Obtained funding: Powers, Clarke, Grubb, Derdeyn.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Powers, Clarke, Grubb, Videen, Adams, Derdeyn.
Study supervision: Powers, Clarke, Grubb.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Drs Powers, Clarke, Grubb, Videen, Adams, and Derdeyn reported receiving salary and other support from US Public Health Service (PHS) grants that funded this research. Dr Adams reported receiving personal compensation as a consultant for Merck and Medtronics. Dr Derdeyn reported receiving personal compensation as a consultant to W. L. Gore and Associates, a medical device company that manufactures aneurysm grafts and vascular stents.
Funding/Support: This research was supported by grants NS39526, NS42157, and NS41895 from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS).
Role of the Sponsor: The US PHS had no role in the design, collection, management, analysis, or interpretation of the data or in the preparation of the manuscript. A member of the Executive Committee that oversaw the conduct of the trial was appointed by NINDS. A data and safety monitoring board appointed by NINDS oversaw the conduct of the trial, had access to all data, and reviewed the manuscript prior to submission to ensure that the study was being reported appropriately.
Disclaimer: The opinions expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the University of North Carolina, the University of Iowa, or Washington University.
Clinical Coordinating Center : University of North Carolina, Washington University: William J. Powers (principal investigator), Robert L. Grubb Jr (neurosurgical principal investigator), Tom O. Videen (PET principal investigator), Colin P. Derdeyn (neuroradiology radiology principal investigator), Carol Hess Papps, Karen McElvany, Lydia Counts, Claudia Kelly, Tori Barnard, Jessica Ferrari, Tena Davis, Tracy Hall.
Statistical and Data Management Center : University of Iowa: William R. Clarke Jr (principal investigator), Harold P. Adams Jr (neurological principal investigator), Michele Costigan, Ken Singletary, Yi Fang, John Marmet, Dixie Ecklund, Michelle Wichman, Michael Hansen, Richard Peters, Diane Anderson, Robert F. Woolson, Cynthia Diltz, Julie Lang, Laura Beane, Jeri Sieren, Ying Zhang.
Positron Emission Tomography Analysis Center : Washington University: Tom O. Videen (principal investigator), John T. Hood Jr.
Safety Monitors: Harold P. Adams Jr, Bryce K. Weir.
End Point Adjudication Committee: Thomas Brott, Philip Gorelick, Gary Ferguson.
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: John Marler, Bernard Ravina, Wendy Galpern, Claudia Moy, Scott Janis.
Data and Safety Monitoring Board: E. Clarke Haley, Sean Grady, Yuko Palesch, David Eidelberg.
Clinical Centers (in order of number enrolled): Washington University School of Medicine: Colin P. Derdeyn, Lina Shinawi, Nancy Hantler, Amber Tyler, Mary Catanzaro, Susie Fritsch, Ralph Dacey, Michael Chicoine, Gregory Zipfel; University of Iowa: Patricia Davis, Heena Olalde, Marge Rogers, Pam Jacobs, Patrick Hitchon, Enrique Leira, Matthew Howard, Jamal Hoballah, Jennifer Ireland; Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center: Randolph Marshall, Kevin Slane, E. Sander Connolly, Joanne Festa, Robert Solomon, Mandip Dhamoon, Joshua Wiley, Guillermo Linares, Adrian Marchidann, Viktor Szeder, Olga Noskin, Dan Antoniello, Bernardo Liberato, Jennifer Frontera, Shyam Prabhakaran, J. Chong, Clinton Wright; University of Cincinnati: Mario Zuccarello, Carolyn Koenig, Lynn Sprafka, Matthew Flaherty, Brett Kissela, Dawn Kleindorfer, Suzanne Kempinsky-Cliver, Joseph Broderick, Collkeen Roggee, Daniel Kanter, Daniel Woo, Alexander Schneider, Irene Ewing; University of Illinois at Chicago: Fady Charbel, Kerriem Watson, Nadda Mlinarevich, Sean Ruland, Amin-Hanjani Sepideh, Rebecca Grysiewicz, Julie Jones; Wake-Forest University: John Wilson, Steven Glazier, Charlottte Miller, Wendy Jenkins, Akiva Mintz, Jeffrey Craig, Charles Tegeler, Kathleen O’Brien; Millard Fillmore Gates Hospital: Marilou Ching, Catalina Ionita, Peterkin Lee-Kwen, Richard Chan, Frederick Munschauer III, Kathleen Parkes, Mary Lou Coad, Kathleen Wrest, Karen Olson, Sharon Harrington, L. Nelson Hopkins, Walter Grand, Richard Ferguson, E. Marl Heckler, Lorraine Pereira, Robert Sawyer, James Budny, Eldad Levy, Lynn Nemeth, Jameela Ali; Cleveland Clinic: Peter Rasmussen, Doreen Andrews-Hinders, Irene Katzan, Ken Uchino, Marc Mayberg, Rishi Gupta, John Bartholomew, Jean-Luc Urbain, Terese Wheeler, Lori Strozniak; University of Arkansas: Ali Krisht, Sharon Partington, Deborah Fewell, James Schmidley; Stanford University: Gary Steinberg, Maria Coburn, Desiree Luu, Christine Wijman, Tim Darsaut, John Sinclair, Ralph Guzman, Anna Ciaravino, Monika Varga, Kathleen Biederman; Goodman Campbell Brain and Spine: Terry Horner, Troy Payner, Kathy Redelman, James Fleck, John Scott; Emory University: Daniel Barrow, Emilee Holland, Fadi Nahab, Kathryn Rahimazadeh, Salina Waddy, Sally Burke, Marc Chimowitz, Michael Frankel, Owen Samuels, Sharion Sailor, Janey Braimah, Charlene Stark, Bethany Lane, Nicole Lessard, Harriet Howlett-Smith, Mustaffa Ezzedine, Barney Stern, Betty Shipp, Kate Hanson, Tanya Turan, Naema Osman; Indiana University: Christina Ivan, Askiel Bruno, Jose Biller, Flossy Nabila Lincoln, Sandy Guingrich, Angi Micheels, Michael Pritz, J. D. Fleck, Linda Williams, William Jones, Alison Sears, Kelley Faber, Alfredo Lopez, Linda Chadwick, Vincent Matthews, Michael Girdler; University of California, San Francisco: Michael Lawton, Lisa Hannegan, Wade Smith; University of Wisconsin: Robert Dempsey, Pam Winne, M. J. Washburn, Alice Li, Justin Sattin, Matthew Jensen, Marcus Chacon, Douglas Dulli, George Newman, Madlein Geraghty, Nicole Page, Jamie Kish; London Health Science Centre: Richard Chan, Kimberly Hesser, Steven Lownie, Vladimir Hachinski, Connie Frank, Lorraine Fleming, Karen Baptista, Suzan Matijevic; University of Pittsburgh: Tudor Jovin, Howard Yonas, Ken Uchino, Julia Billigen, Lori Kirby, Maxim Hammer, Mouhammad Jumaa, Ridwan Lin, Amer Malik, Nishant Ranawat, Vivek Reddy, Lawrence Wechsler, Syed Zaidi, Nishant Ranawat, Mary Ann Rothfus, David Adelson, Rishi Gupta, Ashis Tayal, James Gebel, Edwin Nemoto, Ronda Pindzola, Yvette Mallory; University of Michigan Medical Center: B. Gregory Thompson, Donna Auer, Carol Persad, Dominique Powells, Darin Zahuranec, Devin Brown, Susan Hickenbottom; Thomas Jefferson University: Robert Rosenwasser, Ellen Simons, Maureen Jensen, Rodney Bell, Monisha Kumar, Michael Moussouttas, Carissa Pineda, Deborah August, Erol Veznedaroglu, David Brock, Gerri McGinnis, Rachel Scollon, Kathleen Hilbert; University of Texas, Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas: Mark Johnson, Hal Unwin, Dion Graybeal, Thomas Kopitnik, Lisa Davis, April Blair, Duke Samson, Jessica Lee, Mounzer Kassab; University of California, Los Angeles: Neil Martin, Jeffrey Saver, Judith Guzy, Jill Haines, Jennifer Varma, Hannah Smith, Rana Fiaz, Latisha Ali, S. Thomas Carmichael, David Liebeskind, Bruce Ovbiagele, Paul Vespa, Kimberly Duke, Sid Starkman, Michael Froehler, Matthew Tenser, Pablo Villablanca, Chad Miller, Samer Shah, Johannes Czernin, Suichi Suzuki, Bruce Dobkin, Amytis Towfighi, Chelsea Kidwell, Andre Fredieu, Margaret Tremwel, Donna Manglona; St Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center: Joseph Zabramski, JoAnn Snyder, James Frey, Robert Spetzler, Murray Flaster; Mercy General Hospital Sacramento: M. Asim Mahmood, Paul Akins, John Byer, John Schaefer, Deidre Wentworth, Susan Croopnick, Laura Newman, Kathleen Cabe; Park Nicollett Institute: Sandra Hanson, Amy Castle, Eric Nussbaum, Linda Kuno, Jennifer Mattson; University of New Mexico: Howard Yonas, Alice Brown, Marc Malkoff, Glen Graham, Elaine Stack, Lori Kirby; Wayne State University: Fernando Diaz, Richard Fessler, Vickie Gordon, Bradley Jacobs; Massachusetts General Hospital: Christopher Ogilvy, Deidre Buckley, Jaime Mansala, Allegra Bruce, Ferndinando Buonanno, David Greer, Meaghan Whalen; Mayo Clinic at Rochester: Frederic Meyer, Nicole Fode-Thomas, Steve Thalacker, David Piepgras, Jimmy Fulgham, John Atkinson; Loyola University Medical Center: Jose Biller, Linda Chadwick, Douglas Anderson, Michael Schneck, Rima Dafer, Sarkis Morales Vidal, Edward Duckworth; Case Western Reserve Medical Center: Warren Selman, Gerri Zalaski, Valerie Cwiklinski, Cathy Sila, Robert Tarr, Nicholas Bambakadis, Jose Suarez; Duke University Medical Center: Carmel Graffagnino, Joanna Stoner, Sarah Moore, Allan Friedman, Vani Chilikuri, Jessica Kesler; Baptist Memorial Hospital, Memphis: Clarence Watridge, Mistina Pannell, Grace Miller, Michael Jaciewicz, Lance Wright; Swedish Medical Center, Seattle: David Newell, Beth Miller Kraybill, William Likosky, Brandi French, Jeannie Bush, Amanda Brown, Joanie Block, Bonnie Blanchard; University of Washington: Kyra Becker, Laligam Sekhar, David Newell, Patricia Tanzi, Dian Nuxoll, Heather Bybee, Steven Cramer; Methodist Hospital, Houston: John Volpi, Marilyn Bautista, Jonathan Zhang, David Chiu, James Ling, Delmar Imperial-Aubin, Donald Bledsoe, Jose Tenorio; St Louis University: Saleem Abdulrauf, Mandy Kane, Catharine Richard, Margaret Swoboda, Salvador Cruz-Flores, Brent Ibata; Providence Hospital, Southfield, Michigan: Richard Fessler, Kathryn Telck, Vickie Gordon Daniel Pieper, Bruce Silverman, Fernando Diaz, John Whapham; Healtheast Care System, Minneapolis: Sandra Hanson, Amy Castle, Eric Nussbaum; University of Texas Health Sciences Center, San Antonio: David Sherman, Anne Leonard, Laura Moreno, Silvina Tonarelli, Robert Hart, Merrill Carolin, Gustavo Roman, Jean-Louis Caron, Oscar Benevente, Dennis Vollmer; Boone Hospital Center, Columbia, Missouri: Allyn Sher, Stacey Jett, Gerry Neely; West Los Angeles Veterans' Administration Medical Center: Roi Ann Wallis, Kim Panizzon, Eliott Licht, Eric Cheng; St Francis Medical Center, Cape Giradeau, Missouri: Robert Gardner, Janey McAdoo, Darlene Haupt, Kathleen Riggs-Ruupp; Michigan State University: Mounzer Kassab, Susan Wehner, Arshad Majid; Ohio State University: Andrew Slivka, Julie Agriesti; University of Kentucky: Michael Dobbs, Anna Fowler, L. Creed Pettigrew, Anand Vaishnar, Stephen Ryan, Sherry Williams; Medical College of Georgia: Fenwick Nichols, Brian Close, Askiel Bruno, Jeffrey Switzer, David Hess, Christiana Hall, Joanne Rogalsky-Nacca; University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill: Susan Wilson, Natalie Aucutt-Walter, David Huang, Roxanne Poole, Matthew Ostrander; St John's Mercy Medical Center, St Louis: William Logan, Sally Schroer; Mainline Health Stroke Program: Gary Friday, Joan Brown.
PET Centers (in order of number of scans performed): Washington University School of Medicine: Colin P. Derdeyn, Lennis Lich, Sally Schwarz, Greg Gaehle; Kettering Medical Center, Kettering, Ohio: Joseph Mantil, Pamela Strohmeyer, Elaine Gagermeier, Steve Mattmuller, T. K. Narayanan, Binzhi Shi, Martin Satter, Gordon Simmons, Brad Christian, Max Carone, Tonya Perkins, Marilyn Brackney; University of Pittsburgh: James Mountz, Julie Price, Donald Sashin, Carolyn Meltzer, Chet Mathis; Northern California Positron Imaging Center: Elma Abella, Dan Cariddi, Bruce Finley, Peter Valk, Jan Cronin, Ruth Tesar; University of Iowa: Richard Hichwa, John Sunderland, Len Watkins, Laurie Ponto; Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center: Ronald Van Heertum, Norman Simpson, Chitra Saxena; SUNY Buffalo/Western New York VA: Alan Lockwood, Michael Haka; Wayne State University: Harry Chugani, Lynda Ferguson, Otto Musik, Tom Manger; Good Samaritan Medical Center, Phoenix, Arizona: Eric Reiman, Debbie Intorcia, Stephanie Reeder, Dan Bandy, Tricia Giurlani, Anita Prouty, Christine Burns; University of Wisconsin: Charles Stone, Brad Christian, Alex Converse, Andrew Roberts, Terry Oakes, Kevin Dabbs; Mayo Clinic at Rochester: Brian Mullan, Mark Jacobson, Brad Kemp, Terry Brinkman; Wake Forest University: Pradeep Garg, Kathryn Morton, Paul Stroud, Kerry Link, Clive Brown-Proctor, Fred Fahey, Scott Wollenweber, Holly Smith; University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio: Peter Fox, Jean Hardies, Laura Morena, Shalaini Narayana, Paul Jerabek; University of California, Los Angeles: John Mazziotta, Roger Woods, Olga Fernandez, Nazim Jaffer. Massachusetts General Hospital: Tom Brady, Alan Fischman, Ron Callahan, Jack Correi; Emory University: Mark Goodman, Ron Crowe, John Votaw, J. Douglas Bremner, Jonathan Nye; University of Washington: Janet Eary, Kenneth Krohn, Kristin Kauno, Barbara Lewellen, Linda Kimura, Steve Shoner, Tom Lewellen; Duke University Medical Center: R. Edward Coleman, Neil Petry.
This article was corrected for errors on November 22, 2011.