Author Contributions: Dr Kansagara had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Kansagara, Englander, Theobald, Kripalani.
Acquisition of data: Kansagara, Englander, Salanitro, Kagen, Theobald, Freeman, Kripalani.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Kansagara, Englander, Salanitro, Kagen, Theobald, Kripalani.
Drafting of the manuscript: Kansagara, Englander, Salanitro, Kripalani.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Kansagara, Englander, Salanitro, Kagen, Theobald, Freeman, Kripalani.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Freeman.
Study supervision: Kansagara, Kripalani.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: This report is based on research conducted by the Evidence-Based Synthesis Program Center located at the Portland VA Medical Center, and funded by the Department of Veterans Affairs and the Veterans Health Administration, Office of Research and Development, Health Services Research and Development. The research also was funded in part by Vanderbilt CTSA grant 1 UL1 RR024976 from the National Center for Research Resources, National Institutes of Health.
Role of the Sponsor: The funding organizations had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Disclaimer: The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors who are responsible for its contents; the findings and conclusions do not necessarily represent the views of the Department of Veterans Affairs or the US government. Therefore, no statement in this article should be construed as an official position of the Department of Veterans Affairs.
Additional Contributions: We thank Rose Relevo, MLS, MS, AHIP, research librarian (Oregon Health & Science University), for constructing and deploying the search strategy, as well as Tomiye Akagi, BA, administrative assistant (Portland VA Medical Center). We also thank Ed Vasilevskis, MD, Frank Harrell, PhD, Art Wheeler, MD, and Italo Biaggioni, MD (all 4 with Vanderbilt University) for critically reviewing a draft of the manuscript. Dr Wheeler was compensated by the Vanderbilt CTSA grant. Drs Vasilevskis, Harrell, and Biaggioni did not receive compensation for their contributions.