Published Online: October 5, 2011. doi:10.1001/jama.2011.1471
Author Contributions: Dr Rowan had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Noah, Peek, Finney, Griffiths, Harrison, Grieve, McAuley, Noble, Menon, Rowan.
Acquisition of data: Noah, Peek, Finney, Griffiths, Harrison, Firmin, Harvey, Cordingley, Price, Vuylsteke, Jenkins, Noble, Bloomfield, Walsh, Perkins, Menon, Rowan.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Peek, Finney, Griffiths, Harrison, Grieve, Sadique, Sekhon, McAuley, Vuylsteke, Jenkins, Walsh, Perkins, Taylor, Rowan.
Drafting of the manuscript: Noah, Peek, Finney, Griffiths, Harrison, Grieve, Sadique, Vuylsteke, Jenkins, Menon, Taylor, Rowan.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Noah, Peek, Finney, Griffiths, Harrison, Grieve, Sadique, Sekhon, McAuley, Firmin, Harvey, Cordingley, Price, Vuylsteke, Jenkins, Noble, Bloomfield, Walsh, Perkins, Menon, Rowan.
Statistical analysis: Harrison, Grieve, Sadique, Sekhon.
Obtained funding: Harrison, McAuley, Perkins, Menon, Rowan.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Peek, Griffiths, Firmin, Harvey, Cordingley, Price, Vuylsteke, Taylor.
Study supervision: Peek, Jenkins, Menon, Rowan.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Peek reported that money has been paid to his institution (Glenfield Hospital) as grants from the Society of Critical Care Medicine, the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine, Avalon Labs, and Chalice Medical for travel and accommodation to facilitate his attendance at international conferences. Dr Griffiths reported that money was paid to him from GlaxoSmithKline for development of assets for acute lung injury and he has grants pending with GlaxoSmithKline for such development of assets. Dr Harrison reported that money has been paid to his institution (Intensive Care National Audit & Research Centre) from the National Institute for Health Research as research grant funding for the SwiFT study. Dr McAuley reported that he has consulted for, sat on advisory boards for, and received lecture fees from GlaxoSmithKline and received lecture fees from AstraZeneca for educational meetings. Dr Harvey reported that money has been paid to him from Avalon Labs for the cost of flights to attend an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) conference. Dr Price reported that she has received royalties as a textbook editor for cardiovascular critical care from Wiley-Blackwell; payment for the development of educational materials and honoraria from Medtronic; and reimbursement from Medtronic for travel undertaken to give educational lectures and accommodations for the European Society of Cardiology meeting in 2010 and 2011. Dr Jenkins reported that he has received reimbursement from Chalice Medical (UK distributor for Levitronix ECMO pump) for travel expenses to the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization conference in 2010. Dr Perkins reported that money was paid to his institution (University of Warwick) from GlaxoSmithKline for his work as a member of an advisory board for novel treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome; and he received lecture fees from GlaxoSmithKline. Dr Menon reported that his institution has received grant support from the National Institute for Health Research, UK Health Technology; he serves as a paid consultant or member of a data and safety monitoring board for Solvay, GlaxoSmithKline, Brainscope, Ornim Medical, Shire Medical, and Neurovive; he has received an honorarium from GlaxoSmithKline for one lecture at the London Hospital; money is paid to his institution for a patent registered for a new positron emission tomography ligand for assessing mitochondrial function; and he receives royalties from the University of Cambridge Press as a co-editor of a textbook on neuroanesthesia and critical care. Dr Rowan reported that money was paid to her institution (Intensive Care National Audit & Research Centre) from the National Institute for Health Research as research grant funding for the SwiFT study. No other authors reported disclosures.
Funding/Support: The SwiFT study was funded by the National Institute for Health Research and has been published in full in the Health Technology Assessment journal series.
Role of the Sponsor: The National Institute for Health Research had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
SwiFT Study Investigators: Aberdeen Royal Infirmary (Stephen Stott), Addenbrookes Hospital (David Menon), Airedale General Hospital (John Scriven), Alder Hey Hospital (Paul Baines), Alexandra Hospital (Gareth Sellors), Altnagelvin Area Hospital (Lynn Gilfeather), Antrim Area Hospital (Ronnie Bailie), Arrowe Park Hospital (Ranjeev Mehra), Barnsley Hospital (Ak Bowry), Basildon Hospital (David Lowe), Basingstoke & North Hampshire Hospital (Patrick Creagh Barry), Bassetlaw Hospital (Anthony Dixon), Bedford Hospital (David Niblett), Birmingham Children's Hospital (Heather Duncan), Birmingham Heartlands Hospital (Gavin Perkins), Borders General Hospital (Jonathan Aldridge), Bristol Royal Infirmary (Tim Gould), Broomfield Hospital (Dilsh Arawwawala), Chelsea & Westminster Hospital (Richard Keays), Cheltenham General Hospital (Rob Orme), Chesterfield Royal Hospital (Nick Spittle), Chorley & South Ribble Hospital (Irfan Chaudry), Christie Hospital (Phil Haji-Michael), City Hospital (Nick Sherwood), Colchester District General Hospital (Andrew Timmins), Conquest Hospital (Rhian Edwards), Crosshouse Hospital (Roger White), Darent Valley Hospital (Mike Protopapas), Darlington Memorial Hospital (Alan Murray), Derriford Hospital (Peter Robbins), Dewsbury and District Hospital (Christine Hildyard), Doncaster Royal Infirmary (Benjamin Williams), Dorset County Hospital (Andrew Ball), Dumfries & Galloway Royal Infirmary (Dewi Williams), East Surrey Hospital (Barbara Bray), Eastbourne District General Hospital (Rhian Edwards), Epsom General Hospital (Larry Mulleague), Freeman Hospital (Jon Walton), Frenchay Hospital (Gareth Wrathall), Friarage Hospital (Steven Bonner), Frimley Park Hospital (Rhiannon Jackson), Glasgow Royal Infirmary (Tara Quasim), Glenfield Hospital (Iain Maclaren), Gloucestershire Royal Hospital (Steven Twigg), Good Hope Hospital (Gavin Perkins), Great Ormond Street Hospital (Mark Peters), Guy's Hospital (Andrew Jones), Hairmyres Hospital (Veronica Watson), Harrogate District Hospital (David Earl), Hereford County Hospital (Richard Harding), Hinchingbrooke Hospital (George Koshi), Homerton University Hospital (David Watson), Hull Royal Infirmary (Ian Smith), Inverclyde Hospital (Fiona Munro), James Cook University Hospital (Steven Bonner), John Radcliffe Hospital (Duncan Young), Kent & Canterbury Hospital (Tony Beaumont), Kettering General Hospital (Phil Watt), King George Hospital (Farrel Igielman), King's College Hospital (Andre Vercueil), King's Mill Hospital (Mervyn Ross), Kingston Hospital (Jim Zwaal), Leicester Royal Infirmary (Iain Maclaren), Lincoln County Hospital (Murray Spittal), Lister Hospital (Ruth Van Hoogstraten), Liverpool Heart and Chest Hospital (Omar Al-Rawi), Luton and Dunstable Hospital (Steve Brosnan), Macclesfield District General Hospital (John Hunter), Maidstone Hospital (Lee Baldwin), Manchester Royal Infirmary (Jane Eddleston), Mater Misericordiae University Hospital (Brian Marsh), Mayday University Hospital (Arif Moghal), Medway Maritime Hospital (David Simpson), Mid Western Regional Hospital Limerick (Catherine Motherway), Milton Keynes Hospital (Hamid Manji), Monklands Hospital (Jim Ruddy), Musgrove Park Hospital (Andy Daykin), Nevill Hall Hospital (Stephen Edwards), New Cross Hospital (Simon Hester), Newcastle General Infirmary (Alan Sweenie), Newham General Hospital (Stuart Withington), Ninewells Hospital & Medical School (Stephen Cole), Norfolk & Norwich University Hospital (Tim Leary), North Devon District Hospital (Tim Cobby), North Middlesex University Hospital (Ah-Fee Chan), North Staffordshire University Hospital (Nick Coleman), North Tyneside General Hospital (Karen Connelly), Northwick Park Hospital (Gary Wares), Nottingham City Hospital (Bob Winter), Papworth Hospital (Alain Vuylsteke), Perth Royal Infirmary (Shelagh Winship), Peterborough District Hospital (Stephen Short), Pilgrim Hospital (Murray Spittal), Poole Hospital (Ken Power), Princess Alexandra Hospital (Jeff Phillips), Princess Royal Hospital (David Christmas), Queen Alexandra Hospital (Bruce Taylor), Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Gateshead (Lynn Swanson), Queen Elizabeth Hospital, King's Lynn (Parvez Moondi), Queen Elizabeth II Hospital (Ruth Van Hoogstraten), Queen Margaret Hospital (Marcia McDougall), Queen Mary's Hospital, London (Chris Palin), Queen Victoria Hospital (Alison Munday), Queen's Hospital, Burton (Paul Stewart), Queen's Hospital, Romford (Rajesh Jain), Queen's Medical Center, Nottingham (Bob Winter), Raigmore Hospital (Jonathan Whiteside), Rotherham General Hospital (David Harling), Royal Berkshire Hospital (Chris Danbury), Royal Blackburn Hospital (Anton Krige), Royal Bournemouth General Hospital (Rob McCormick), Royal Brompton Hospital (Simon Finney), Royal Cornwall Hospital (Cate Powell), Royal Derby Hospital (Nick Reynolds), Royal Devon & Exeter Hospital (Chris Day), Royal Gwent Hospital (Jack Parry Jones), Royal Hampshire County Hospital (Arthur Goldsmith), Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh (Tim Walsh), Royal Lancaster Infirmary (David Highley), Royal Liverpool University Hospital (Richard Wenstone), Royal Preston Hospital (Irfan Chaudry), Royal Shrewsbury Hospital (David Christmas), Royal Sussex County Hospital (James Yassin), Royal United Hospital, Bath (Jerry Nolan), Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast (Danny McAuley), Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle (Ian Clement), Russells Hall Hospital (Helga Becker), Sandwell Hospital (Nick Sherwood), Scarborough General Hospital (Jo Jaidev), Sheffield Children's Hospital (Anton Mayer), Sligo General Hospital (Ronan O’Hare), Solihull Hospital (Gavin Perkins), South Tyneside District Hospital (Govindan Balaraj), Southampton General Hospital (Rebecca Cusack), Southend University Hospital (David Higgins), Southern General Hospital (Gregor Imrie), Southmead Hospital (Gareth Wrathall), Southport & Formby District General Hospital (Michael Vangikar), St George's Hospital (Barbara Philips), St Helier Hospital (Larry Mulleague), St John's Hospital (Samantha Moultrie), St Peters Hospital (Barry Sellick), St Richards Hospital (Michael Margarson), St Thomas' Hospital (Andrew Jones), St Lukes Hospital, Kilkenny (Niall Kavanagh), Stafford Hospital (Greg Earnshaw), Stirling Royal Infirmary (Chris Cairns), Stobhill Hospital (Carol Murdoch), Stoke Mandeville Hospital (Kumar Panikkar), Sunderland Royal Hospital (Andy Morrison), Great Western Hospital (Malcolm Watters), Ipswich Hospital (Richard Lloyd), James Paget University Hospital (Darell Tupper-Carey), Royal London Hospital (Marie Healy), Whittington Hospital (Chris Hargreaves), Torbay Hospital (John Carlisle), Trafford General Hospital (John Barnes), Ulster Hospital (Claire Jamison), University College Hospital, Galway (John Bates), University College Hospital, London (Sara Polhill), University Hospital Aintree (Tristan Cope), University Hospital Coventry (Buddhavarapu Murthy), University Hospital of Hartlepool (Vijay Gupta), University Hospital of North Durham (Alan Murray), University Hospital of North Tees (Vijay Gupta), University Hospital of Wales (Gareth Scholey), Victoria Hospital, Blackpool (Chris Clarke), Walton Center for Neurology & Neurosurgery (Ian Tweedie), Warrington Hospital (Jennifer Tytler), Warwick Hospital (Tim Long), Waterford Regional Hospital (Brian O’Brien), Watford General Hospital (Thomas Stambach), West Cumberland Hospital (Ian Ulyett), West Middlesex University Hospital (Thomas Mphanza), West Suffolk Hospital (John Cardy), Western General Hospital (Charles Wallis), Weston General Hospital (Ioannis Tsagurnis), Wexford General Hospital (David Honan), Wexham Park Hospital (Rob Loveland), Whipps Cross Hospital (Frieda Keane), Whiston Hospital (Christina Jones), Wishaw General Hospital (Lorraine Bell), Worcestershire Royal Hospital (Jeremy Thomas), Worthing Hospital (Shaun Anderson), Wrexham Maelor Hospital (David Southern), Wycombe Hospital (Timothy Dexter), Wythenshawe Hospital (Andrew Bentley), Yeovil District Hospital (Jeremy Reid), York Hospital (Rinus Pretorius), Ysbyty Glan Clwyd (Richard Pugh), and Ysbyty Gwynedd (Pierre Peyrasse).
Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the UK Department of Health.
Additional Contributions: We acknowledge the support of NHS Specialised Services of the UK Department of Health for supporting increased capacity to provide extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for adult patients during the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic. The National ECMO Service is indebted to dedication of the coordinators at Glenfield Hospital, Leicester, England, led by Gail Faulkner, RGN, and Maggie Hickey, BSc. We are indebted to the relevant staff at all of the hospitals participating in the SwiFT study. Mss Faulkner and Hickey were compensated for their contributions as employees of Glenfield Hospital but they also gave a considerable amount of their own time for which they were not compensated.