Celiac disease is one of the most prevalent autoimmune gastrointestinal disorders, but as the case of Ms J illustrates, diagnosis is often delayed or missed. Based on serologic studies, the prevalence of celiac disease in many populations is estimated to be approximately 1% and has been increasing steadily over the last 50 years. Evaluation for celiac disease is generally straightforward and uses commonly available serologic tests; however, the signs and symptoms of celiac disease are nonspecific and highly heterogeneous, making diagnosis difficult. Although celiac disease is often considered a mild disorder treatable with simple dietary changes, in reality celiac disease imparts considerable risks, including reduced bone mineral density, impaired quality of life, and increased overall mortality. In addition, a gluten-free diet is highly burdensome and can profoundly affect patients and their families. For these reasons, care of individuals with celiac disease requires prompt diagnosis and ongoing multidisciplinary management.