Author Contributions: Dr Nicholas had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Nicholas, Langa, Iwashyna, and Weir.
Acquisition of data: Nicholas, Langa, and Iwashyna.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Nicholas, Langa, Iwashyna, and Weir.
Drafting of the manuscript: Nicholas, Langa, Iwashyna, and Weir.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Nicholas, Langa, Iwashyna, and Weir.
Statistical analysis: Nicholas.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Nicholas, Langa, Iwashyna, and Weir.
Study supervision: Nicholas.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by grants U01 AG09740, R01 AG030155, K08 HL091249 from the National Institutes of Health and Clinical and Translational Science Award grant UL1RR024986 from the Michigan Institute for Clinical and Health Research.
Role of the Sponsor: The National Institutes of Health had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript. The Health and Retirement Study is conducted by the University of Michigan with funding from the National Institute on Aging.
Disclaimer: The views expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the position or policy of the Department of Veterans Affairs or the US government.
Online-Only Material: The Author Video Interview is available here.
Additional Contributions: We thank Tish Shapiro, MA, for programming assistance and Morris Hamilton, BA, for research assistance. Both are employees of the University of Michigan and did not receive additional compensation for their involvement.