Author Contributions: Dr Nallamothu had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Nallamothu, Rogers, Birkmeyer.
Acquisition of data: Nallamothu.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Nallamothu, Gurm, Ting, Goodney, Rogers, Curtis, Dimick, Bates, Krumholz, Birkmeyer.
Drafting of the manuscript: Nallamothu, Goodney.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Nallamothu, Gurm, Ting, Goodney, Rogers, Curtis, Dimick, Bates, Krumholz, Birkmeyer.
Statistical analysis: Nallamothu, Goodney, Rogers, Dimick.
Obtained funding: Nallamothu.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Nallamothu, Birkmeyer.
Study supervision: Nallamothu, Birkmeyer.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: This project was supported by grant 5R21AG032155-02 from the National Institutes of Health.
Role of the Sponsor: The funding agency had no role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the National Institutes of Health, the Department of Veterans Affairs, or the Department of Health and Human Services.
Additional Contributions: We are grateful to Onur Baser, PhD, and Li Wang, MS, PhD, STATinMED, and Mingrui Lu, MPH, University of Michigan, for assisting with preparation of data. No compensation was received for these contributions.