Author Contributions: Drs Maher and Shekelle had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Maher, Maglione, Bagley, Suttorp, Sultzer, Shekelle.
Acquisition of data: Maher, Hu, Munjas, Wang, Shekelle.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Maher, Maglione, Bagley, Suttorp, Munjas, Wang, Timmer, Sultzer, Shekelle.
Drafting of the manuscript: Maher, Maglione, Suttorp, Hu, Munjas, Wang, Shekelle.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Maher, Maglione, Bagley, Suttorp, Timmer, Sultzer, Shekelle.
Statistical analysis: Suttorp, Munjas.
Obtained funding: Maglione, Shekelle.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Maher, Maglione, Hu, Timmer, Sultzer, Shekelle.
Study supervision: Maher, Maglione, Bagley, Shekelle.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Sultzer reported that he received research support for an Alzheimer disease study from Eli Lilly (no direct or indirect salary was paid to him) and consulting fees from RAND Corporation for his work as member of a technical expert panel for the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality that performed the initial analysis. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This article is based on research conducted by the Southern California Evidence-Based Practice Center under contract HHSA2902007100621 with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. This work was commissioned by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality as an update to an earlier report. Drs Sultzer and Shekelle are also supported by the Department of Veterans Affairs.
Role of the Sponsor: The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality had a role, through its sponsorship of the Evidence-based Practice Centers program, in the general methods of the systematic reviews of the program and in the development of the key questions for each review. However, neither the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality nor the Department of Veterans Affairs had a role in the conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Disclaimer: The authors of this article are responsible for its content. No statement in this article should be construed as an official position of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the US Department of Health and Human Services, or the Department of Veterans Affairs.
Additional Contributions: Roberta Shanman, MLS, director of Reference Services for the RAND Library, conducted the literature searches. Tanja Perry, BHM, Aneesa Motala, BA, Di Valentine, JD (Southern California Evidence-Based Practice Center, RAND Health, Santa Monica, California) contributed to the evidence report and the manuscript. They received compensation for their contributions as RAND employees.