Author Contributions: Dr Sanda had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Drs Alemozaffar and Regan contributed equally as first authors. Drs Cooperberg and Wei contributed equally as second authors. Drs Carroll and Sanda shared senior authorship.
Study concept and design: Alemozaffar, Regan, Wei, Michalski, Hembroff, Saigal, Litwin, Klein, Wood, Carroll, Sanda.
Acquisition of data: Cooperberg, Wei, Michalski, Sandler, Hembroff, Saigal, Litwin, Klein, Kibel, Hamstra, Pisters, Kuban, Kaplan, Wood, Ciezki, Carroll, Sanda.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Regan, Cooperberg, Michalski, Sandler, Sadetsky, Saigal, Litwin, Klein, Pisters, Wood, Dunn, Carroll, Sanda.
Drafting of the manuscript: Alemozaffar, Regan, Cooperberg, Hamstra, Pisters, Kaplan, Sanda.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Regan, Cooperberg, Wei, Michalski, Sandler, Hembroff, Sadetsky, Saigal, Litwin, Klein, Kibel, Hamstra, Pisters, Kuban, Kaplan, Wood, Ciezki, Dunn, Carroll, Sanda.
Statistical analysis: Alemozaffar, Regan, Sadetsky, Dunn.
Obtained funding: Saigal, Kibel, Carroll, Sanda.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Wei, Michalski, Hembroff, Saigal, Litwin, Klein, Kibel, Hamstra, Pisters, Wood, Ciezki, Carroll, Sanda.
Study supervision: Hembroff, Kuban, Carroll, Sanda.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. None of the coauthors have been compensated specifically for work related to this manuscript other than having received research support from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to cover costs of conducting the study. Dr Cooperberg reported serving as a consultant for Denreon and Ortho-Centocor and receiving payment for lectures from Takeda, Abbott, and Amgen. Dr Wei reported serving as a consultant for Envisioneering Inc and sanofi-aventis; serving as an expert witness for Genprobe; serving as a proctor for American Medical Systems; and receiving research funding from sanofi-aventis. Dr Michaliski reported making donations to charity in lieu of honoraria for his role as a board member for Elekta Inc, Augmenix Inc, and Viewray. Dr Sandler reported serving as a consultant for Varian, Calypso Medical, Millennium-Takeda, and Centocor-Ortho Biotech. Dr Kibel reported serving as a consultant for Myraid, Caris, Dendreon, sanofi-aventis, Cougar, and Ferring; receiving payment for lectures from Dendreon; and holding stock in Myriad. Dr Kuban serving as a consultant for Ferring Pharmaceuticals and bioTheranostics and as a lecturer supported by the Radiation Oncology Institute. Dr Wood reported serving as a consultant for Intuitive Surgical and holding stock in that company. Dr Carroll reported receiving an institutional research grant from Abbott. Dr Sanda reported receiving a lecture honnorarium from Eli Lily. No other authors reported financial disclosures.
Funding/Support: The study was supported by NIH grants R01 CA 95662 and 1RC1CA146596
Role of Sponsor: The NIH had no role in the design and conduct of the study; the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Online-Only Material: The author interview is available here.
Additional Contributions: We acknowledge the help of Jill Hardy, MS (Michigan State University), Beth Doiron, BA (Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center), and Catrina Crociani, MPH (Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center), for project management and of Alan Paciorek, BS (University of California, San Francisco), for analytic support. The individuals and the coordinators at each clinical site participated as research study staff but were not compensated specifically for this manuscript.
This article was corrected for errors on September 20, 2011.