Author Contributions: Dr Haider had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Haider, Sexton, Cooper, Efron, Swoboda, Haut, Bonds, Pronovost, Lipsett, Cornwell.
Acquisition of data: Haider, Sriram, Villegas, Bonds.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Haider, Sexton, Sriram, Cooper, Efron, Villegas, Haut, Bonds, Lipsett, Freischlag.
Drafting of the manuscript: Haider, Swoboda.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Haider, Sexton, Sriram, Cooper, Efron, Villegas, Haut, Bonds, Pronovost, Lipsett, Freischlag, Cornwell.
Statistical analysis: Haider, Sexton, Sriram, Villegas, Bonds.
Obtained funding: Haider, Villegas.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Haider, Sexton, Swoboda, Lipsett.
Study supervision: Cooper, Efron, Pronovost, Lipsett, Freischlag, Cornwell.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by grant K23GM093112-01 from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health and by the American College of Surgeons C. James Carrico Fellowship for the study of Trauma and Critical Care (Dr Haider), and grant K24HL083113 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (Dr Cooper).
Role of the Sponsors: None of these organizations had any role in design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Additional Contributions: We thank Valerie K. Scott (Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, MSPH candidate) for her editorial assistance in the preparation of this article. Ms Scott received hourly compensation for her efforts.