Author Contributions: Dr Prasad had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Prasad, Holmboe, Lipner, Christie, Rubenfeld, Kahn.
Acquisition of data: Holmboe, Lipner, Hess.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Prasad, Holmboe, Lipner, Hess, Christie, Bellamy, Rubenfeld, Kahn.
Drafting of the manuscript: Prasad, Lipner, Hess, Christie, Bellamy, Kahn.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Prasad, Holmboe, Lipner, Hess, Christie, Bellamy, Rubenfeld, Kahn.
Statistical analysis: Prasad, Lipner, Hess, Bellamy, Rubenfeld, Kahn.
Obtained funding: Prasad, Kahn.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Lipner, Hess.
Study supervision: Lipner, Christie.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: This work was funded by a grant from the Leonard Davis Institute of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (Drs Prasad and Kahn).
Role of the Sponsor: The Leonard Davis Institute had no specific role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.