Author Contributions: Drs Obedin-Maliver and Lunn had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Ms Goldsmith and Dr Stewart contributed equally to this article.
Study concept and design: Obedin-Maliver, Goldsmith, Stewart, Tran, Fetterman, Garcia, Lunn.
Acquisition of data: Goldsmith, Stewart, White, Tran, Brenman, Wells.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Obedin-Maliver, Goldsmith, Stewart, White, Brenman, Wells, Lunn.
Drafting of the manuscript: Obedin-Maliver, Goldsmith, Stewart, White, Tran, Brenman, Wells.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Obedin-Maliver, Goldsmith, Stewart, White, Tran, Brenman, Wells, Fetterman, Garcia, Lunn.
Statistical analysis: Goldsmith, White.
Obtained funding: Obedin-Maliver, Goldsmith, Stewart, Garcia, Lunn.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Tran, Brenman, Wells.
Study supervision: Obedin-Maliver, Fetterman, Garcia, Lunn.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by Stanford University School of Medicine; Stanford University School of Medicine, Office of the Dean; Stanford University School of Medicine, Office of Diversity and Leadership; Haas Center for Public Service at Stanford University; and the Stanford University LGBT Community Resources Center. Drs Obedin-Maliver and Ms Brenman report receipt of support from the Stanford University School of Medicine Medical Scholars Fellowship Program.
Role of the Sponsor: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Previous Presentations: Preliminary data were presented, in part, at the Association of American Medical Colleges' (AAMC) Group on Student Affairs, Group on Diversity and Inclusion, and Organization of Student Representatives National Spring Meeting, Austin, Texas, April 17-21, 2010; the 28th Annual Conference of the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association, San Diego, California, September 22-25, 2010; the Research in Medical Education section of the AAMC Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, November 5-10, 2010; and the Western Regional Conference of the AAMC's Group on Educational Affairs and Group on Student Affairs, Stanford, California, May 2, 2011.
Additional Contributions: Lisa J. Chamberlain, MD, MPH, and Andrew B. Nevins, MD, Stanford University School of Medicine, and Harvey J. Makadon, MD, Harvard Medical School, provided expertise and guidance; Rita Popat, PhD, Stanford University School of Medicine, provided statistical consultation; M. Brownell Anderson, MEd, AAMC, provided advice and questionnaire distribution suggestions; and Lea Gee-Tong and Bradford Nguyen, Stanford University, Elise Paradis, PhD, Stanford University School of Education, and Brett Smith-Hams, BA, Mills College, provided discussions and review of this article. The following individuals and their respective organizations provided written support of the study: Lily May Johnson, MS, and Karen A. Lewis, MS, AAMC Group on Student Affairs, Committee on Diversity Affairs; Rebecca Allison, MD, Jon D. Fanning, MS, and Michael Kutnick, BA, American Medical Association, Advisory Committee on GLBT Issues; and Jim Beaudreau, MPA, Joel Ginsberg, JD, MBA, and Jason Schneider, MD, Gay & Lesbian Medical Association. The following individuals and their respective organizations provided assistance with distributing the questionnaire invitation to their constituent populations: Ann Steinecke, PhD, AAMC; Ronald Garcia, PhD, Stanford University School of Medicine; Lily May Johnson, MS, and Karen A. Lewis, MS, AAMC Group on Student Affairs, Committee on Diversity Affairs; Thomas Levitan, MEd, and Gina M. Moses, MEd, American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine. All individuals acknowledged herein received no compensation for their role in this study.