Author Contributions: Dr Jeffe had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Both authors contributed equally to this work.
Study concept and design; Acquisition of data; Analysis and interpretation of data ; Drafting of the manuscript ; and Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Jeffe, Andriole.
Financial Disclosures: Both authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Drs Jeffe and Andriole report receiving travel funds from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to attend various meetings, at which their research on medical education was presented. Dr Andriole reports receiving an honorarium and travel reimbursement from the University of Cincinnati for a lecture on MD-PhD programs and their graduates. Colleagues at the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) and American Medical Association (AMA) did not receive compensation from the authors for their support, but data files provided by the AAMC and AMA were purchased with grant funds.
Funding/Support: Funding for the study was provided by the NIH National Institute of General Medical Sciences (grant R01 GM085350-03).
Role of the Sponsors: The National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the NIH was not involved in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Previous Presentation: Presented in part at the 7th Annual AAMC Physician Workforce Research Conference, National Harbor, MD, May 5-6, 2011.
Disclaimer: The conclusions made by the authors are not necessarily those of the AAMC, the National Board of Medical Examiners, the NIH, the AMA, the American Board of Medical Specialties, or their respective staff members. The AMA is the source for the raw Physician Masterfile data; the statistics, tables, and tabulations of the data were prepared by the authors with the AMA Masterfile data. The board certification information presented herein is proprietary data maintained in a copyrighted database compilation owned by the American Board of Medical Specialties.
Additional Contributions: Data management and statistical services were provided by James Struthers, BA, and Yan Yan, MD, PhD (Washington University School of Medicine), who were supported in part by the NIH–Institute of General Medical Sciences. We thank Paul Jolly, PhD, Gwen Garrison, PhD, Jason Cantow, MS, MBA, Franc Slapar, MA (AAMC), and Robert M. Galbraith, MD, MBA (National Board of Medical Examiners), for their support of our research efforts through provision of data and assistance with coding, and Sarah Brotherton, PhD (AMA), for her support and assistance with coding, none of whom received financial compensation for his/her contributions.
This article was corrected for errors on September 23, 2011.