Author Contributions:Dr Nardin had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Nardin, Day, Boyd.
Acquisition of data: Nardin, Frank.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Nardin, Zallman, Day, Boyd.
Drafting of the manuscript: Nardin, Frank, Boyd.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Nardin, Zallman, Day, Boyd.
Statistical analysis: Nardin, Zallman, Day.
Obtained funding: Zallman.
Study supervision: Nardin, Day.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: Dr Zallman's work was supported by an Institutional National Research Service Award (T32HP12706).
Role of the Sponsor: The sponsor had no role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Additional Contributions: We thank Diane Saint-Victor, BA, Physicians for a National Health Program, for her help in data collection and Steffie Woolhandler, MD, MPH, and David Himmelstein, MD, CUNY School of Public Health, for early inspiration for the study. No compensation was received by Ms Saint-Victor or Drs Woolhandler and Himmelstein for their work.