A gentle man, Arthur Hughes (1832-1915) painted genteel subjects in the manner of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, but he never belonged to that exclusive circle. Lured by the Brotherhood's short-lived periodical Germ, Hughes held fast to this style throughout his career; Hughes' sweet manner was exceptionally suited to his illustrations in children's books, for which he is especially remembered. Dante Gabriel Rossetti, John Everett Millais, and William Holman Hunt, around the mid-1800s, comprised the nidus of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. Their tenets of naturalism, anti-academicism, and focus on literary figures entranced Hughes, who aspired to their lofty ambitions. Hughes' friends William Morris and Edward Burne-Jones (JAMA cover, September 9, 2009), leaders in the British Arts and Crafts movement, were also part of the Pre-Raphaelite realm.