Advances in genomic technologies have enabled a deeper understanding of a variety of phenotypes relevant to clinical medicine. The ability to test hundreds of thousands of inherited genetic markers for association with medical traits (genome-wide association studies, or GWAS) has led to new discoveries. While GWAS of diseases focus on disease onset and rate of progression, the term pharmacogenomics refers to the application of GWAS and related genomic technologies to understanding variability in treatment outcome of a disease (a drug's efficacy or toxicity).
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