In recent years, the Chinese government has made great progress in regulating organ transplant operations. Since 2007, the Chinese Ministry of Health has strictly enforced the authentication program for approval of hospitals to perform organ transplantation.1 Of the more than 600 hospitals that had performed organ transplantations before regulation began, only 163 hospitals now have authentication to perform organ transplantation. Of these, 123 hospitals are approved to perform kidney transplantation, 80 for liver transplantation, 38 for heart transplantation, and 27 for lung transplantation. Quality surveillance and management of transplantations have improved substantially. Hospitals that conduct illegal transplant operations or mismanage organ transplantations are punished with financial penalties or administrative sanctions. For example, 10 hospitals were ordered to improve their transplant program, 7 hospitals had their qualification for transplantation suspended for 3 to 6 months, and 1 was denied qualification.2
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