0
We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
JAMA Patient Page |

Hyperthyroidism FREE

Janet M. Torpy, MD, Writer; Cassio Lynm, MA, Illustrator; Robert M. Golub, MD, Editor
JAMA. 2011;306(3):330. doi:10.1001/jama.306.3.330.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

The thyroid gland is located at the base of the neck, in front of the trachea (windpipe) and esophagus (tube that connects the mouth with the stomach). The thyroid produces thyroid hormone, which helps regulate many body functions. In hyperthyroidism, the thyroid is overactive and produces more thyroid hormone than the body needs. Women are more likely than men to have hyperthyroidism, and it affects younger persons more than elderly persons. This Patient Page is based on one published in the July 6, 2005, issue of JAMA.

CAUSES

More than 70% of cases of hyperthyroidism are related to Graves disease, an autoimmune disorder in which the body produces antibodies to its own tissues. These antibodies cause the thyroid to make too much thyroid hormone. Some persons with Graves disease develop an eye condition called exophthalmos, in which the eyes begin to protrude because of swelling of tissues behind the eye. Smoking cigarettes greatly increases the risk of a more severe eye problem among persons with Graves disease. Other medical problems that can cause hyperthyroidism are toxic nodular goiter (areas of the thyroid enlarge and make too much thyroid hormone), subacute thyroiditis (inflammation of the thyroid), exposure to iodine in medications or x-ray dyes, and postpartum thyroiditis (inflammation of the thyroid after a pregnancy).

SYMPTOMS

  • Weight loss without eating less or exercising more

  • Palpitations (rapid heart rate) or abnormal heart rhythms

  • Heat intolerance and sweating

  • Nervousness

  • Tremors (shakiness of the hands)

  • Eyes that appear to protrude

Symptoms may be less severe or even absent in older persons with hyperthyroidism.

DIAGNOSIS

Your medical history and a physical examination may indicate the possibility of hyperthyroidism. Simple blood tests show the presence of too much thyroid hormone as well as an abnormally low level of the hormone called TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone). A thyroid scan may be performed using an injection or pill containing a small amount of radioactive material. This test looks for areas of abnormal function within the thyroid gland.

TREATMENT

Treatment of hyperthyroidism depends on the cause. Graves disease may be treated with medications known as antithyroid drugs, radioactive iodine, or surgery to remove the thyroid gland.

FOR MORE INFORMATION

INFORM YOURSELF

To find this and previous JAMA Patient Pages, go to the Patient Page link on JAMA 's Web site at www.jama.com. A Patient Page on subclinical hypothyroidism was published in the September 22/29, 2010, issue and one on thyroid nodules was published in the December 1, 2004, issue.

Sources: The Hormone Foundation, American Thyroid Association, Thyroid Foundation of America

The JAMA Patient Page is a public service of JAMA. The information and recommendations appearing on this page are appropriate in most instances, but they are not a substitute for medical diagnosis. For specific information concerning your personal medical condition, JAMA suggests that you consult your physician. This page may be photocopied noncommercially by physicians and other health care professionals to share with patients. To purchase bulk reprints, call 312/464-0776.

Topic: ENDOCRINE DISORDERS

Tables

References

CME
Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
NOTE:
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).

Multimedia

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Articles Related By Topic
Related Topics
PubMed Articles
JAMAevidence.com

The Rational Clinical Examination
Population for Whom a Goiter Disease Should Be Considered