The prospect of viral eradication has garnered attention in recent years, after an adult male referred to as “The Berlin Patient” was cured of HIV following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), a risky procedure with a high mortality rate. Importantly, the patient had been diagnosed with acute myelogenous leukemia and required both extensive pretransplant conditioning therapy (aimed at eliminating his own immune cells) and HSCT to cure the malignancy. Therefore, it was leukemia, not HIV infection, that tipped the risk-benefit evaluation in favor of HSCT. In addition, the transplant donor cells were “resistant” to HIV, carrying a homozygous mutation in the CCR5 gene, which encodes the coreceptor used by most strains of HIV to enter human cells. Therefore, after ablation of the patient’s immune cells and replacement with resistant cells, residual HIV lacked targets for self-propagation and viral rebound.2 Today, 5 years after transplantation, the patient takes no ART and remains free of detectable virus.