Published Online: October 7, 2013. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.280048.
Study concept and design: Chung, Ju, Bilimoria.
Acquisition of data: Bentrem, Bilimoria.
Analysis and interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Chung, Ju, Baker, Bilimoria.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Chung, Ju, Bilimoria.
Obtained funding: Bentrem, Bilimoria.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Bentrem, Bilimoria.
Study supervision: Bilimoria.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr. Bilimoria is the primary investigator of R21HS021857 from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ); reports receiving support from the American Cancer Society, National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Northwestern University, the Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern Memorial Foundation, and Northwestern Memorial Hospital; and has received honoraria from hospitals, professional societies, and continuing medical education companies for clinical care and quality improvement research presentations. Dr. Haut is the primary investigator of the Mentored Clinician Scientist Development Award K08 1K08HS017952-01 from the AHRQ, receives royalties from Lippincott Williams & Wilkins for a book he coauthored, and has given expert witness testimony in various medical malpractice cases. Dr. Bentrem is supported by a career development award from the Health Services Research and Development Service of the Department of Veterans Affairs. Dr. Baker has received honoraria for research presentations from Abbott Laboratories and Merck. Dr. Baker currently receives grant funding from the AHRQ and the National Institutes of Health.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by AHRQ R21HS021857 and a Center Development Award from Northwestern University and Northwestern Memorial Hospital to Dr Bilimoria. Dr Ju is supported by National Institutes of Health 5T32HL094293. Dr Haut is supported by a career development award 1K08HS017952-01 from the AHRQ.
Role of the Sponsor: The funding sponsors played no part in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript. The sponsors had no access to the data and did not perform any of the study analysis.
Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent the views of the US government.
Previous Presentation: This study was presented in part at the 2013 Academy Health Annual Research Meeting on June 24, 2013, in Baltimore, Maryland.
Additional Contributions: We acknowledge Min-Woong Sohn, PhD, and Elissa Oh, MS (Surgical Outcomes and Quality Improvement Center and Center for Healthcare Studies, Northwestern University), for assistance with data management and thank Jay Anderson, MBA, Gary Noskin, MD, Scott Greene, MD, and Cindy Barnard, MBA, MSJS (Northwestern Memorial Hospital), for their input on this study. None of those acknowledged received compensation for their contributions.