Author Contributions: Dr Young had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: All authors.
Acquisition of data: Young, Cuthbertson.
Analysis and interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: All authors.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Harrison.
Obtained funding: Young, Cuthbertson.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Young, Rowan.
Study supervision: Young.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Hospitals and Principal Investigators: Aberdeen Royal Infirmary (Dr Brian H. Cuthbertson); Alexandra Hospital (Dr Tracey Leach); Barnet Hospital (Dr Andy Cohen); Barnsley District General Hospital (Dr Ye Myint) ; Bedford Hospital (Dr Jane Hurst); Castle Hill Hospital (Dr Sean Bennett); Causeway Hospital (Dr Chris Watters); Chorley Hospital (Dr Segun Akinpelu); City General Hospital Stoke on Trent (Dr Nick Coleman); City Hospital Birmingham (Dr John Bleasdale); Derriford Hospital (Dr Peter Macnaughton); Dumfries & Galloway Royal Infirmary (Dr Wayne Wrathall); Eastbourne District General Hospital (Drs Ian Andrews and John Cook); Freeman Hospital (Dr Andrew Kilner); Glan Clwyd District General Hospital (Dr Brian Tehan); Glenfield Hospital (Dr Sanjay Agrawal); Hairmyres Hospital (Dr David Allen); Huddersfield Royal Infirmary (Dr Peter Hall); James Cook University Hospital (Drs Judith Wright and Fiona Clark); James Paget Hospital (Dr Andreas Brodbeck); John Radcliffe Hospital (Dr Duncan Young); King's College Hospital (Dr Georg Auzinger); King George Hospital (Dr Tomas Jovaisa); Kings Mill Hospital (Dr Sandeep Dhir); Kingston Hospital (Dr Kaggere Paramesh); Leeds General Infirmary (Dr Andy Bodenham); Leicester Royal Infirmary (Drs William Russell and Jonathan Greiff); Luton & Dunstable Hospital (Dr Mark Patten); Manchester Royal Infirmary (Drs Niall O'Keeffe and Jane Eddleston); Medway Maritime Hospital (Mrs Catherine Plowright); Newcastle General Hospital (Dr Angus Vincent); New Cross Hospital (Dr Jagtar Pooni); Ninewells Hospital (Dr Stephen Cole); North Middlesex Hospital (Dr Ah-Fee Chan); Peterborough District Hospital (Dr Tuba Hussain); Princess Alexandra Hospital (Dr Dev Dutta and Ms Lindsay Spalding); Queen Alexandra Hospital (Dr David Pogson); Rochdale Infirmary (Dr Anil Gupta); Royal Alexandra Hospital (Drs Tom Ireland and H. Stirton); Royal Berkshire Hospital (Dr Atul Kapila); Royal Bournemouth Hospital (Dr Rob McCormick); Royal Cornwall Hospital (Dr Jonathan Paddle); Royal Devon & Exeter Hospital (Dr Chris Day); Royal Hampshire County Hospital (Drs Geoff Watson and Satish Kumar); Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh (Drs Tim Walsh, David Hope, and Caroline MacIver); Royal Surrey County Hospital (Dr Maha Zuleika); Russells Hall Hospital (Dr Julian Sonksen); Scunthorpe Hospital (Dr Raafat Sharawi); Southampton General Hospital (Dr Tom Woodcock); Southend Hospital (Dr David Higgins); South Tyneside District General Hospital (Dr Christoph Muench); St Richard's Hospital (Dr Michael Margarson); St Thomas' Hospital (Dr Duncan Wyncoll); Staffordshire General Hospital (Dr John Hawkins); Sunderland Royal Hospital (Dr Mark Carpenter); Taunton & Somerset Hospital (Dr Andy Daykin); Torbay Hospital (Dr Jonathan Ingham); University Hospital Lewisham (Dr Marthin Mostert); University College Hospital (Dr Geoff Bellingan); Weston General Hospital (Drs Ioannis Tsagurnis and Libby Cauldwell and Ms Belinda Williams); Whiston Hospital (Drs Robin Macmillan and David Comyn); Whittington Hospital (Dr Sarah Gillis); Worthing Hospital (Dr Richard Venn); Wythenshawe Hospital (Dr Phil Haji-Michael); Yeovil District Hospital (Drs Rob Daum and Lisa Martin); and York Hospital (Dr Henry Paw).
Study Management: L. Morgan, F. Greenland, V. Barber (study coordinators), L. Bower, K. Coleman, J. Quinton (recruitment facilitating nurses), D. Newman, C. Bouse (administration), J. Griffiths (clinical fellow), and D. Young (chief investigator).
Trial Steering Committee: D. Elbourne (chair), V. Barber, G. Bellingan, M. Coombs, B. H. Cuthbertson, N. Donlin, R. Griffiths, D. Harrison, S. Harvey, L. Morgan, J. Paddle, K. Rowan, F. Russell, H. Shakur, M. Singer, T. Walsh, C. Wareham, B. Williams, and D. Young.
Data Monitoring and Ethics Committee: P. Sandercock (chair), M. Mythen, and S. Richards.
Funding/Support: The UK Intensive Care Society funded the research prioritization work that led to this study. The study was funded by the UK Intensive Care Society and the Medical Research Council.
Role of the Sponsor: The University of Oxford acted as the sponsor. The funders and sponsor had no influence on the design and conduct of the study; the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript. The randomization service was provided by the Health Services Research Unit in the University of Aberdeen.