Author Contributions: Dr McMullan had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: McMullan, Schernhammer, Hu, Forman.
Acquisition of data: Schernhammer, Hu, Forman.
Analysis and interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: McMullan.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: McMullan, Forman.
Obtained funding: Schernhammer, Hu, Forman.
Administrative, technical, or material support: McMullan, Hu, Forman.
Study supervision: Schernhammer, Forman.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: The authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Hu reported serving as a consultant to Novo Nordisk; and receiving grants from Merck and the Walnut Commission. No other author reported disclosures.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by National Institutes of Health grants DK58845 and HL103607.
Role of the Sponsor: The National Institutes of Health had no role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Online-Only Material: The Author Audio Interview is available here.